- 1 Dioxidin preparation: description
- 2 Varieties
- 3 When is Dioxidine prescribed?
- 4 Instructions for use
- 5 Contraindications
- 6 Additional recommendations
- 7 cost of the drug
- 8 Application Reviews
Instructions for use Dioxidine indicates that this drug from the group of synthetic antibiotics has an extensive spectrum of bactericidal action. Dioxidine exhibits special activity against anaerobes, which allows its use in the treatment of severe purulent infections. In addition, the medication is included in the treatment regimen for diseases caused by anaerobic microorganisms and other strains of bacteria that are resistant to other chemotherapy drugs.
Dioxidine is a synthetic antimicrobial agent with the active ingredient from the group of quinoxaline derivatives. In medicine, the drug is used in the treatment of infections caused by the following types of pathogens:
- staphylococcus, streptococci;
- Pseudomuscular bacillus;
- dysenteric bacillus;
- cholera vibrio, Koch wand.
The drug shows high activity against anaerobic bacteria (including those that cause gas gangrene) and other pathogens of purulent-infectious processes. Obligatory anaerobes are particularly sensitive to the antibiotic, which allows Dioxidin to be prescribed in the treatment of pseudotuberculosis, shegellosis, cholera, salmonellosis.
The action of the active substance, hydroxymethylquinoxalinedioxide, is aimed at suppressing vital activity and destroying the cell walls of pathogenic bacteria, which leads to their destruction.
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When applied topically, the drug is rapidly absorbed and helps to cleanse burns and purulent wounds, and also contributes to the accelerated regeneration and epithelization of tissues.
When injected, the drug may be mutagenic and teratogenic, which limits its use and requires careful adherence to the recommended dosage during treatment. In therapeutic concentration, the drug is stored in the blood for 4 hours, reaching a maximum after 60 minutes. In this case, the active substance penetrates into all tissues and internal organs, but it does not accumulate in the body during repeated treatments. The drug is eliminated from the body through the urinary system (kidneys).
Dioxidine has several forms of release:
- ointment 5%;
- Dioxidine solution (0.5%) for intravenous injection;
- Dioxidine in ampoules for inhalation (5 mg) and intracavitary use (1%).
Dioxidin ointment is intended for external use. 1 g of the drug contains 50 mg of the active substance dissolved in the basis of polyethylene oxide and other excipients. The ointment is sold in aluminum tubes of different volumes (from 25 to 100 mg).
Dioxidin 1% solution is available in 10 ml glass ampoules. In 1 ml of a clear, colorless solution is 10 mg of the active ingredient, dissolved in water for injection.
Dioxidine 5 mg for inhalation is produced in 10 and 20 ml ampoules. In each milliliter of the drug, 5 mg of hydroxymethylquinoxalinedioxide is dissolved in water for injection. Ampoules containing solution for injection and inhalation are placed in 10 pieces in cardboard packaging.
When is dioxidine prescribed?
In medicine, intravenous administration of the drug is practiced exclusively in the hospital when treatment of severe bacterial infections caused by microorganisms that are insensitive to other antibiotics. Since Dioxidine exhibits a toxic effect, in the process of treatment it is necessary to monitor the patient's condition and regular analyzes of vital signs. Intravenous injections are prescribed for the following conditions:
- sepsis on the background of extensive burns;
- purulent meningitis;
- generalized purulent-inflammatory processes.
As a prevention of bacterial infections, intravenous injection of the solution is recommended during surgical intervention on the heart (coronary artery bypass surgery, vascular prosthetics).
Dioxidine solution (1%) is prescribed for the treatment of cystitis and purulent pleurisy, peritoneal inflammation (peritonitis), purulent inflammation (empyema) of the gallbladder. As a prophylaxis, intracavitary injections are prescribed to prevent possible complications arising from bladder catheterization.
Dioxidine ointment is used as part of complex therapy of trophic ulcers, purulent wounds (including osteomyelitis), extensive burns, purulent mastitis, infectious lesions of the skin (pyoderma), provoked by streptococcal or staphylococcal pathogens.
A solution of 5 mg is used in otolaryngology for the treatment of rhinitis, sinusitis, instillation of dioxidin in the nose, and also included in the complex treatment of otitis. Procedures with the use of dioxidine in the ear prescribed in the inflammatory process associated with the penetration of bacterial agents in the organs of hearing.
Instructions for use
Intravenous injections are done only with the use of a dropper, in a hospital and under the supervision of the attending physician. Before the procedure, it is necessary to make tests on the portability of the drug. For injection, the Dioxide solution must be pre-diluted with isotonic sodium chloride solution to a concentration of 0.1-0.2%. A single dose of the drug should not exceed 30mg, daily - 60mg.
Dioxidine solution is injected into the cavity with a syringe, catheter or drainage tube. Taking into account the size of purulent cavities per day, from 10 to 50 ml of solution can be injected. If the patient tolerates the infusion, the drug can be administered once a day for 3 weeks or more. In this case, the maximum daily dose can not be higher than 70 ml.
Photo: Joint Pain Ointment
When external treatment of superficial purulent wounds impose gauze napkins soaked in a solution of Dioxidin (0.5 - 1%). If the wounds are deep, tampons moistened with 1% Dioxidine solution are inserted into the cavities. When osteomyelitis, during which is accompanied by the formation of deep purulent wounds on the hands and feet, use baths with a solution or inject the drug into the wound for 15-20 minutes.
Dioxidine ointment is applied to a pre-cleaned surface wounds or burns with a thin layer. Dressings with ointment are changed according to the condition of the affected skin (daily or every other day). The duration of the course of treatment depends on the tolerance of the drug and the rate of healing. On average, the ointment form of the drug is used for 2-3 weeks. Repeated courses of treatment prescribed by the doctor, taking into account the patient's condition.
Dioxidine for children is more often used in the treatment of purulent otitis and rhinitis. Before you drip the solution, the ear canal is thoroughly cleaned of sulfur emissions or pus with a cotton swab soaked in 3% hydrogen peroxide solution. Then Dioxidine is injected into the ear and simultaneously into the nose, since these organs are connected with each other by an Eustachian tube. This procedure allows you to sanitize not only the ear canal, but also the nasal cavity, effectively eliminating the inflammatory process.
Instillation into nose
Instillation of Dioxidine in the nose is used for complicated forms of rhinitis (rhinitis). In pediatrics, the solution is pre-diluted to a concentration of 0.1-0.2%. The doctor should select the treatment regimen for children individually. A standard course of treatment involves the introduction of 1-2 drops of solution into each nostril for 3-5 days. The procedure is done 2-3 times a day.
Dioxidine for adults with sinus injected in a volume of from 3 drops to 1/3 of a pipette. The exact dosage of the drug and the frequency of use should be determined by the doctor. Before instillation into the nose, the drug is diluted with a solution of sodium chloride or water for injection.
Inhalation therapy is used in the treatment of respiratory diseases. For the procedure, 1% of the drug is diluted with saline in a ratio of 1: 4, a solution of 0.5% - in a ratio of 1: 2. For one session, it is enough to use 4 ml of the resulting solution, which is added to water for inhalation.
The main contraindications to the use of the drug are the following states:
- individual intolerance to the active substance;
- the period of pregnancy and lactation;
- adrenal insufficiency;
- children's age (up to 12 years).
Despite the fact that the instructions for the drug have age restrictions, in pediatrics, the drug is still used even in small children strictly according to indications in cases where the therapeutic effect can not be achieved when using other medicines. In the treatment of rhinitis and sinusitis, children are prescribed only a weakly concentrated Dioxidine solution for instillation into the nose.
In general, Dioxidine is well tolerated by patients. But with intracavitary administration and intravenous administration, the following reactions may occur:
- temperature riseaccompanied by chills;
- sudden muscle contractions;
- dyspeptic disorders (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea);
- allergic reactions (up to anaphylactic shock).
Sometimes the use of the drug causes a photosensitizing effect, accompanied by the appearance of pigmentation sites on the skin. Treatment with ointment can lead to dermatitis and severe itching on the treated areas.
When pigment spots appear, the duration of a single dose of the drug is increased to 1.5 hours, or the dose is reduced and antihistamines are prescribed in parallel.
When the temperature drops to 15 ° C, precipitation of crystals in the ampoules with a solution is possible. In this case, before use, they are heated in a water bath until the precipitate is completely dissolved.
In patients with renal insufficiency, it is necessary to reduce the dose of the drug and to conduct regular laboratory monitoring of the patient's condition.
Before starting to use Dioxidine, a tolerance study is required. To do this, a small volume (10 ml) of a 1% solution is injected into the cavity and the patient’s condition is monitored for 3-6 hours. If during this time there are no adverse events (chills, fever, dizziness), the drug can be used for a course of treatment.
The following drugs are structural analogues of Dioxidine:
In the list of drugs with another active ingredient that provide the same therapeutic action means such as Monural, Galenofillipt, Nitroxoline, Amizolid, Zenix, Dioxycol, Fosfomycin. The question of the expediency of replacing Dioxidine with analogous preparations is entirely within the competence of the attending physician.
The price of Dioxidine in the pharmacy chain depends on the type of drug and the trademark cheating of pharmacists:
- Dioxidin ointment - from 300 rubles;
- Dioxidine solution 1% - from 350 rubles;
- Dioxidine solution 0.5% - from 320 rubles.
Patient reviews of the drug Dioxidine rather contradictory. Some patients believe that this is a powerful tool that is very effective in stopping the processes associated with purulent infections. Others say the drug is toxic and often causes serious adverse reactions. At the same time, the majority of negative opinions are found on the use of injectable forms of the drug, while the local use of the solution and ointment causes almost no complaints.
The ointment form of the drug very well disinfects purulent and burn wounds, prevents them further infection and promotes healing without causing irritation and other negative consequences.
Reviews from doctors say that the use of Dioxidine in the form of injections is shown only in severe cases when the use of other antibacterial agents does not work. In the process of treatment, the patient must be constantly monitored, and his condition must be monitored by laboratory methods.
In the instructions for the drug there is no mention of the possibility of using Dioxidine solution in pediatrics. However, in practice, a low concentration solution is used in the treatment of purulent rhinitis in children as a very effective means. In this case, the doctor must individually select a treatment regimen and this approach is considered to be fully justified, as it helps in the short term to deal with the problem.
Review number 1
I do not know how justified the use of Dioxidine in children. I know that this is a very toxic drug, which is prescribed to adults only in extreme cases. It has a very negative effect on the kidneys, and in adolescents the functions of the adrenal glands are not yet fully formed and it is difficult to say what the consequences will be in the future.
My son, at the age of 7, was advised by a doctor to drip a solution of dioxidin into the nose during a rhinitis complication. But after reading the summary of the drug, I refused to buy it. Now there are many medications that are not as dangerous and do not cause such adverse reactions. I think I did the right thing.
Review number 2
Last year I almost lost my mother, she was in the hospital with purulent meningitis. Everyone knows what a serious condition it is, often leading to death. As far as I know, Dioxidin was in the treatment regimen, since no other antibiotics helped. And it is this tool that has helped to cope with the infection.
Of course, it is not harmless and difficult to tolerate, but the end justifies the means, and besides, other antibiotics are also toxic to the body. This drug was administered under the supervision of doctors, every 2 days they took blood for analysis, in time to notice any negative changes. In the end, it was this antibiotic that helped, and the moms left the hospital on their feet.
Review number 3
I have a severe stage of varicose disease. The legs are covered with trophic ulcers, I practically can not move. What is this terrible state will understand only those who are faced with such manifestations. The doctors prescribed different drugs, but really only the dressings with Dioxidin solution helped me.
This is a very strong antimicrobial drug that disinfects ulcers and prevents purulent complications. On the damaged areas put gauze napkins, abundantly impregnated with a solution, fixed with a bandage. Procedures done for 2 weeks. The condition improved significantly, the ulcers began to tighten, then Dioxidin treated them with ointment and the healing proceeded even faster. Now I use only this tool, it helps very well.
Veronika, St. Petersburg