- 1 Levofloxacin: pharmacological properties
- 2 Varieties of the drug
- 3 When is prescribed?
- 4 Instructions for use
- 5 Contraindications
- 6 adverse reactions
- 7 Levofloxacin and alcohol
- 8 Analogs
- 9 drug price
- 10 Application Reviews
Instructions for use of Levofloxacin describes all the features of the use of modern antibacterial agents from the group of the third-generation fluoroquinolones. The drug provides a wide range of bactericidal action and is used to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urogenital and respiratory systems, ENT organs. A variety of dosage forms will allow the use of the drug in other areas of medicine - in ophthalmology, dermatology (for the treatment of abscesses and boils).
Levofloxacin: pharmacological properties
Levofloxacin is a synthetic antibiotic with a pronounced antimicrobial action, the basis of which is the active ingredient of the same name - levofloxacin hemihydrate. Thanks to the latest chemical formula, the drug acts much more efficiently than its predecessor, Ofloxacin. Its bactericidal action is based on the inhibition of enzymes responsible for DNA replication in bacterial cells. Unlike other antibacterial agents, levofloxacin acts on pathogens at any stage of development, effectively destroying not only dividing, but also growing cells. As a result, pathogens lose their ability to grow and reproduce and die.
The drug is active against most strains of pathogens of infectious processes - anaerobic and aerobic bacteria (as gram-positive, and gram-negative) and the simplest microorganisms, and also effectively destroys pathogenic microflora, showing resistance to other antibiotics.
After ingestion Levofloxacin is very rapidly absorbed, and food intake has almost no effect on this process. Bioavailability of the drug when taken on an empty stomach reaches 100%. The active ingredient readily penetrates into all tissues and organs, is determined in sputum and cerebrospinal fluid. Excreted mainly by the kidneys (with urine) within 48 hours.
Antibiotic Levofloxacin is available in the following dosage forms:
- Levofloxacin tablets 500 mg and 250 mg - yellow, film-coated, biconvex, round in shape. The numbers respectively indicate the concentration of the active substance. Tablets of 5 or 10 pieces are packaged in a contour of cells or polymer cans and placed in cardboard packaging.
- Levofloxacin solution is a transparent, yellow-green color, intended for infusion. 1 ml of the drug contains 5 mg of levofloxacin. The solution is available in 100 ml glass bottles.
- Drops Levofloxacin 0.5% (ophthalmic) is a clear homogeneous solution, in 1 ml of which 5 ml of the active substance is dissolved. Drops are sold in a carton box containing 2 polyethylene droplet tubes, 1 ml each.
When is prescribed?
The drug is used in various fields of medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by strains of bacteria that are sensitive to the active substance of the drug. The solution and tablet forms of the antibiotic are used in the following conditions:
- with infectious lesions of the lower respiratory tract (chronic bronchitis in the acute stage, community-acquired pneumonia);
- with diseases of the upper respiratory tract (acute sinuses);
- for infections affecting the kidneys and urinary system (including acute manifestations of pyelonephritis);
- with bacteremia or septicemia;
- bacterial prostatitis and other genital infections;
- when the infection spreads to the skin and soft tissues (abscesses, purulent atheromas, furunculosis).
Levofloxacin is included in the complex treatment of drug - resistant forms of tuberculosis, as well as used in the treatment of intra-abdominal infections.
Levofloxacin eye drops are used in the treatment of blepharitis, bacterial conjunctivitis, purulent ulceration of the cornea, eye diseases caused by chlamydial or gonorrheal infection.
Instructions for use
The drug in the form of a solution for infusion is administered to the patient in a vein, drop by drop, 1-2 times a day. At the same time, it is important to observe the rate of solution administration (100 ml per hour). The dose of the drug is adjusted by the doctor taking into account the clinical indications and the patient's condition.
The total duration of intravenous administration of the solution depends on the severity of the infection. Thus, the longest course of treatment is required for tuberculosis, the causative agent of which is resistant to drugs. After the patient’s condition is normalized, it is recommended to continue treatment with tablet forms of the drug.
Levofloxacin tablets are recommended to be taken with food, swallowing whole and squeezed 150-200 ml of water. The dosage of the drug and the duration of treatment depend on the clinical picture of the disease:
- with exacerbation of bronchitis It is recommended to take 0.25 - 0.5 mg of the drug for 7-10 days;
- acute forms of sinusitis require taking pills at a higher dose (0.5 mg) for a maximum of 2 weeks;
- Levofloxacin for prostatitis of bacterial origin is taken in a dosage of 500 mg per month;
- in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary system and kidney infections, only three days of taking the tablets (250 mg) are enough; the complicated forms require a longer course of treatment (up to 10 days).
The drug in the treatment of these diseases is taken once (1 time per day). A double dose of Levofloxacin at a dosage of 0.25-0.5 g is required for pneumonia, intra-abdominal infections, and soft tissue lesions. The course of treatment of these conditions takes 1-2 weeks. In any case, the pill continues for another 2-3 days after the normalization of the condition. With the use of the drug in the complex therapy of tuberculosis, tablets (500 mg) are taken twice a day. The course of treatment is long, up to 3 months.
Drops of Levofloxacin are instilled into the conjunctival sac of the affected eye in a volume of 1-2 drops, every 2 hours in the first two days of treatment. Then the frequency of use is reduced and the preparation is instilled every 4 hours. The total duration of the drug is from 5 to 7 days.
Instructions for use of eye drops warns that they contain a preservative (benzalkonium chloride), which is incompatible with soft contact lenses. This substance is easily absorbed by the material from which the lenses are made and can cause severe eye irritation. Therefore, for the entire period of treatment from wearing contact lenses will have to be abandoned.
Levofloxacin is prohibited in the following conditions:
- hypersensitivity to the active substance of the drug;
- pregnancy, lactation;
- renal failure;
- defeat tendons, triggered by taking other drugs - quinolones;
The drug should not be prescribed to children and adolescents (up to 18 years). With extreme caution, the antibiotic is used in cases of renal dysfunction, conditions associated with a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate hydrogyne, in the elderly.
Levofloxacin, like other antibiotics, can provoke numerous adverse reactions from various systems and organs. Most often, such manifestations occur on the background of the use of the tablet form of the drug and injections. The most common reaction is nausea, increased liver enzyme activity and diarrhea.
Dyspepsia is less common - abdominal pain, belching, heartburn, vomiting, and lack of appetite. On the part of the nervous system, such manifestations as headache, dizziness, insomnia or drowsiness, lethargy, general weakness, feverish states are possible. There is a change in blood parameters, allergic reactions (itching, rash).
Among the side effects that develop quite rarely (1 person out of 1000) should be noted such severe disorders like bronchospasm, paresthesia, limb tremor, blood pressure drop, seizures, confusion, tachycardia. An increase in bleeding, muscle or joint pain, symptoms of tendonitis, hallucinations, depressive states, anaphylactic shock is possible.
In exceptional cases, such complications as angioedema, impaired taste, visual perception, decreased tactile sensitivity and the ability to distinguish odors developed. Against the background of long-term use of the drug, exudative erythema multiforme, epidermal necrolysis (toxic), muscle weakness, tendon rupture, hemolytic anemia, disruption the kidneys.
In addition to the above systemic adverse reactions, the use of an antibiotic can cause the development of dysbacteriosis and the addition of a fungal infection against the background of reduced immunity. In case of overdose, the side effects become heavier, there are convulsions, confusion, digestive disorders, erosive lesions of the mucous membranes.
Levofloxacin eye drops can also provoke side reactions that are manifested by burning, itching redness and discomfort in the eyes, swelling of the eyelids, irritation, tearing, decrease in sharpness view. In rare cases, there is the development of erythema, the appearance of follicles on the conjunctiva, manifestations of blepharitis, the formation of mucous cords on the affected eye. With increased sensitivity to the drug may cause allergic rhinitis, headachesymptoms of contact blepharitis.
To avoid such unpleasant consequences, one should not exceed the indicated dosages and not increase the recommended treatment time. If any unpleasant symptoms occur, stop taking Levofloxacin and contact your doctor to adjust the course of therapy or replace the drug.
Levofloxacin should not be used to treat children and adolescents, since in this category of patients there is a high risk of rupture of articular cartilage.
In patients with brain damage after injury or stroke, the use of an antibiotic can lead to the development of seizures.
Good to know
With extreme caution, Levofloxacin should be prescribed to elderly patients, since the use of the drug can lead to inflammation of the Achilles tendon and its rupture.
When taking the drug should be aware that such side effects as drowsiness, numbness, visual impairment increases the risk of dangerous situations when driving and mechanisms.
Levofloxacin and alcohol
Many patients are interested in taking Levofloxacin with alcohol. Like other antibacterial agents, this drug is incompatible with the intake of any alcoholic beverages. The active substance exacerbates the negative effect of ethyl alcohol on the nervous system, provokes severe intoxication, increases the manifestation of adverse reactions - nausea, vomiting, confusion, decreased concentration and speed reactions.
Levofloxacin has many structural analogues containing the same active ingredient. Among them are the following medications:
- Levofloxacin Teva;
In addition, there are many antibacterial agents that provide similar therapeutic action - Abaktal, Zarkvin, Cipropan, Ciprodox, Lofox, Tsiprobay, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, etc.
If Levofloxacin did not fit the patient or caused an allergic reaction, the doctor can always choose a replacement from this list of drugs. Self-selection of analogues cannot be in order to avoid unwanted complications and unpredictable adverse reactions.
In the pharmacy chain, the average prices for various forms of Levofloxacin are as follows:
- eye drops (5 ml) - from 120 rubles;
- solution for infusions (100 ml) - from 180 rubles;
- 250mg tablets (5 pcs.) - from 270 rubles;
- 250 mg tablets (10 pcs.) - from 300 rubles;
- 500mg tablets (5 pcs.) - from 280 rubles;
- 500 mg tablets (10 pcs.) - from 520 rubles;
- 500 mg tablets (14 pcs.) - from 600 rubles.
Opinions of patients about this drug are ambiguous. Many say that Levofloxacin has too many side effects and taking pills is accompanied by muscle weakness, confusion, nausea and other unpleasant symptoms. At the same time, patients note that the antibiotic does its job, effectively fights against infectious agents, quickly improves the condition and speeds up the healing process.
According to doctors, it is in the effective bactericidal action of the main advantage of modern medication. He copes with his task even in the case when other antibiotics are powerless.
Review number 1
I was prescribed levofloxacin in the treatment of chronic prostatitis. It was necessary to take 1 tablet for 4 weeks. The first 2 weeks I felt fine, the unpleasant symptoms associated with prostatitis almost disappeared, but the doctor said that the treatment should not be interrupted.
I continued to drink the pills and here the adverse reactions appeared - abdominal pain, diarrhea, my mind was confused, I was in a kind of stupor and all the time I wanted to sleep. Performance dropped to near zero. So I stopped taking it and on the second day my state of health returned to normal. Maybe this antibiotic is effective, but it is painfully toxic, so you need to take it with caution.
Review number 2
A therapist prescribed me Levofloxacin after the flu gave a complication of the lungs in the form of bronchitis. I was just choking on painful coughing attacks, and even the sputum began to stand out thick and yellow. Therefore, the doctor suspected a bacterial complication. It was necessary to drink 1 tablet for 7 days.
The drug is strong, the improvement came on the third day of administration, but I finished the antibiotic to the end to consolidate the result. I heard a lot of negative reviews about side effects from taking Levofloxacin. But I had only mild nausea during the reception, and even the stool became liquid. Therefore, after a course of treatment, the probiotics cut to restore microflora and the condition returned to normal.