Against the background of the blood saturation of hormones produced by the thyroid gland in the body is a qualitative change and the acceleration of metabolic processes. Such a sharp intensification of all types of metabolism has long been characterized in medicine as "the metabolic fire." Cases when disease symptoms and lesions is also accompanied by the adrenals, which leads to a change in the body's adaptation to stress and general metabolism disorders.
What it is?
Hyperthyroidism - a clinical condition that is characterized by increased activity of the thyroid gland to develop T3 hormones (thyroxine) and T4 (triiodothyronine).
These substances enter into all tissues of the body and repeatedly accelerate them in metabolic processes. An imbalance of hormones in hyperthyroidism negative impact on the patient's condition can lead to violations of exchange of energy and heat, as well as adrenal failure.
The role of the thyroid gland in the body
Thyroid - most large iron in the human body, located in the front lower area of the larynx. Endocrine organ responsible for the synthesis of thyroid hormones containing iodine atoms. Iodine is extremely necessary for an organism of each person, as this substance is directly involved in the regulation of metabolism, thermoregulation, affects the nervous system and psyche.
Synthesis and release of thyroid hormones occurs in the follicles of the body in several stages. First, together with the food into the organism enters iodine, which enters the bloodstream in an inorganic form. thyroid cells take it up and converted into an organic iodine. After oxidation of iodine molecules align themselves nonessential amino acid tyrosine, forming such compounds as monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine. Then, the condensation and the formation of T3 and T4 hormones, which are released into the bloodstream. Supersaturated hormone blood carries these materials to all tissues of the body, which leads to the acceleration of metabolic processes in almost all human organs.
To all hyperthyroidism developing hormonal changes due to conversion androgens (male sex hormones) to estrogens (female sex hormones) and the accumulation of the past in blood. Significantly increases the sensitivity of tissues to the effects of the sympathetic nervous system The main part in the regulation of thyroid function takes the hypothalamus and pituitary.
Among the most common causes that contribute to the development of the disease could be considered:
- Grave's disease or toxic goiter considered to be the main cause of the disease. It promotes the development of toxic goiter hyperthyroidism in eighty percent of cases. As a rule, this pathology occurs in women. Graves' disease is considered to be an autoimmune disease and all because of the development of this disease the immune human system starts to synthesize specific antibodies, which in turn contribute to the strengthening of the thyroid gland. Most often in patients with toxic goiter marked and some other autoimmune diseases such as gastritis, autoimmune hepatitis, or glomerulonephritis. For obvious signs of Graves' disease could be considered symptoms of hyperthyroidism and goiter.
- Thyroiditis. With the development of this disease is marked inflammation of the thyroid gland. In most cases, thyroiditis occurs against a background of viral infectious diseases.
- Receiving an excessive amount of thyroid hormone in the form of various pharmaceutical agents.
- Thyroid adenoma or nodular goiter, in which indicated enhanced operation of a section of thyroid tissue. In medicine, this kind of areas called "hot sites".
In most cases, the disease is seen in the fairer half of humanity. If you believe the statistics, then the women, this pathology is observed in the seventeen - twenty times out of a thousand, but the men in only two cases out of a thousand. Most often the disease is subject to working-age population between the ages of twenty to fifty years.
Classification with respect to changes in the level allocates thyrotoxicosis (another name of disease):
- Primary, that is, one that has arisen as a result of changes in the thyroid gland itself;
- Secondary arising due to disturbances in the pituitary gland structures;
- Tertiary, which appeared as a result of pathological changes in the hypothalamus.
Also, there is a division on several forms of hyperthyroidism:
- Manifest, or in other words - explicit. There are characteristic symptoms of the disease. Observed increased amount of triiodothyronine, and reduced TTG indicators;
- Subclinical. It is meant that no obvious clinical signs of disease, however, the amount of TSH is reduced, and the concentration of T4 is correct;
- Complicated. The form in which there may be more problems from cardio - vascular system in the form of atrial fibrillation, cardiac muscle insufficiency. Will be present renal disorders apparatus (renal failure), degeneration of organs, mainly consisting of parenchyma, abnormalities of the nervous system (psychoses). Significantly reduce body weight.
In women, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism caused by the acceleration of all processes in the body and exhibits enhanced performance of systems and organs. Hyperthyroidism manifestation of symptoms depends on the severity and duration of disease, as well as the degree of lesion of organs, tissues or systems.
Excess hormone produced by the thyroid gland, acts as follows on the human body:
- The cardiovascular system. Heart rhythm disturbances - difficult to treat persistent sinus tachycardia, atrial flutter and shimmer. Increasing the gap between the upper and lower values of pressure readings by improving simultaneous systolic and diastolic blood pressure lowering. Increased heart rate, increased volume and the linear blood flow velocity. Heart failure.
- Central nervous system. Irritability, emotional instability, irritability, unreasoning anxiety, fear, rapid speech, disturbed sleep, trembling of the hands.
- Gastrointestinal tract. Increased or decreased appetite, elderly patients - to the complete rejection of food. Digestive disorders and bile formation, paroxysmal abdominal pain, loose stools.
- Ophthalmology. Ophthalmic symptoms is already marked earlier manifestation, which acts as exophthalmos (In which the protrusion of the eyeball is exposed when it is displaced forward and a simultaneous increase in eye gap). In addition, the marked swelling of the eyelids, double vision of objects in view and rare flashes. It is necessary to highlight the fact that due to the compression characteristic, in this case, against which also develops degeneration of the optic nerve, it is not ruled out the possibility of absolute loss of vision patients. Also among the topical ophthalmic symptoms can be identified expression eye dryness and pain in the eyes, increased lachrymation, development of corneal erosion, eye bags, inability concentration view of the particular subject and so forth.
- Respiratory system. Vital capacity decreases as a result of stagnation and edema, dyspnea resistant formed.
- Musculoskeletal system. Developing thyrotoxic myopathy in which characteristic features becomes chronic muscular weakness and fatigue, muscle wasting (muscle condition causing deficiency of nutrients entering the body or not enough assimilation). Also marked tremor of limbs and body as a whole, osteoporosis (chronic progressive disease or clinical syndrome (in this case) characterized by a decrease in bone density characteristic while violating microarchitectonics and strengthened their fragility, relevant for a number of damaging processes). Against the background of the listed symptoms there are difficulties, it was noted during the long walk (especially when climbing stairs), as well as carrying heavy loads. It does not rule out the possibility of muscle paralysis, which in this case is reversible.
- Metabolism. Acceleration metabolism - decrease in weight, despite increased appetite, development thyrogenous diabetes, increased heat production (fever, sweating). As a result of the accelerated collapse of cortisol - adrenal insufficiency. Increased liver, severe cases of hyperthyroidism - jaundice. Excessive thirst, frequent urination and abundant (polyuria) due to violation of water exchange. Thinning of the skin, hair, nails, strong early gray hair, soft tissue swelling.
- Reproductive system. In this region it is also marked characteristic changes. So, against violations of gonadotropin secretion processes can develop infertility. As described previously, men can develop gynecomastia, reduced potency. As for the impact on the female body relevant to the disease process, it is particularly marked failure of the menstrual cycle. menstruation manifestation is characterized by painful and irregular, scanty allocation are in nature, an attendant features - marked weakness (which can reach syncope), strong headache. In an extreme manifestation of the menstrual cycle disruptions achieve amenorrhea, ie complete absence of menstruation.
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism, if present may not be available in older people - the so-called hidden or masked hyperthyroidism. Frequent depression, lethargy, drowsiness, weakness - a typical reaction of the body of older people on the excess of thyroid hormones. Violation of the cardiovascular system in the elderly hyperthyroidism observed much more frequently than in the young.
Thyrotoxic (hyperthyroid) crisis
This complication is manifested by the absence of treatment of thyrotoxicosis or treatment assignment, corresponding in fact not necessary measures. Crisis can also provoke mechanical manipulation produced when viewed from a patient or the surgical intervention, in any way affecting the thyroid gland. It does not rule out the possibility of a crisis and against the background of the effects of stress.
- In general, hyperthyroid crisis manifested peak achievement features inherent hyperthyroidism. It starts badly, for it is the nature of lightning. In patients with marked mental stimulation occurs, and it is often accompanied by hallucinations and delusions. hand shake is amplified, in addition, the jitter is distributed to the lower extremities and the whole body. Sharply falling blood pressure, muscle weakness appears at a total inhibition of the patient. Vomiting manifested in unrestrained form, accompanied by fever (signs indicating relevance infection, in this case none), diarrhea, palpitations (reaching 200 u. / min.). When urination in the urine can be determined for the characteristic odor of acetone. The temperature rises (to 41 degrees), pressure.
- In some cases, jaundice, manifested as a result of the acute form of fatty degeneration of relevance to the liver, may also develop adrenal insufficiency.
It is important to note that the lack of timely assistance can cause death of the patient due to the transition crisis in a coma. Destruction may occur as a result of acute forms of fatty liver disease, or due to adrenal insufficiency.
If untreated, severe thyrotoxicosis, or there is a risk of complications. Most cases thyrotoxic crisis usually crisis occurs when severe concomitant diseases, or untreated Graves' disease. When tireotoksicheskom Stroke sharply increasing signs of hyperthyroidism, aggravated symptoms rapidly developing disturbances in the work of other bodies. The most common complication occurs in women, 70% of the crisis develops in acute severe.
Hyperthyroidism is diagnosed by external manifestations, based on the data of laboratory and instrumental investigations.
- Laboratory tests of blood for the determination of TSH, T3, T4 and antibodies.
- ECG graphically captures the minimum deviation in heart rhythm caused by increased pressure in hyperthyroidism.
- Ultrasound examination and computed tomography thyroid help determine the location, number and size of units, as well as the presence of inflammatory infiltration.
- Nodule biopsy allows histological examination.
- Stsintiografiya thyroid to determine its activity with the help of radioisotopes.
- Ophthalmic tests and ophthalmoscopy to check vision.
Such signs of hyperthyroidism, as the characteristic change in the appearance and number of complaints, give rise to an in-depth examination of the patient.
treatment of hyperthyroidism
In women, the treatment of hyperthyroidism provides the most immediate reduction in thyroid health to the required standards. In this case, the pharmaceutical agents which tend to block the production of thyroid hormones. In some cases, surgery is performed and during which surgeons remove one of the parts of the body.
The dosage and treatment medication signs individually.
- Drugs beta-blockers - "Betaxolol" "Inderal", "bisoprolol", "Nibivolol" "Atenolol", "talinolol", "metoprolol", "Egilok", "Aegis", "Korvitol" and others. Do drugs do not affect the development of hyperthyroidism, their appointment is due to the effect of easing the symptoms - reduce the symptoms of tachycardia and painful manifestations of the heart, gently normalize pressure and arrhythmic state.
- appointed agent, hormonal suppressing synthesis of a slight increase in the thyroid - "tyrosol", "Tiamazol", "Metizol", "Merkazolil", "carbimazole" or "Propylthiouracil". It was an overdose of these drugs can lead to the opposite effect.
- Absolutely necessary reception sedatives - "Valoserdin", "Persia" or "New Pass". This will help normalize sleep, alleviate anxiety and prevent psychological breakdowns.
- Drug "Endonorm" is assigned to maintain the functions of the prostate, in the initial period of the disease.
- When exhaustion, accompanied by intoxication symptoms and diarrhea, may be recommended anabolic drugs - "Methandriol" or "Dianabol".
- Autoimmune genesis (at ophthalmopathy syndrome and adrenal insufficiency) hyperthyroidism prescribers glucocorticoids - "prednisolone" or "Dexamethasone".
In the treatment of hyperthyroidism in women is taken into account the factor of more labile than that of men of the nervous system. Additionally, prescribers hypnotic action, aksiolitiki reducing emotional and tranquilizers -uspokaivayuschie medicines.
Treatment with radioactive iodine (radioiodine therapy) is administered to a patient take the radioactive iodine in aqueous solution or capsule. Once a substance enters the thyroid cells, and there is going to begin to act, it leads to their destruction. As a result, the thyroid gland becomes smaller in size, composition and secretion of hormones in the blood decrease.
Radioiodine therapy is conducted in conjunction with medication. Complete recovery does not occur in patients with hyperthyroidism remains, but not very pronounced, so there is a need for re-treatment. In most cases, after radioiodine therapy for hypothyroidism occurs months or years, so the therapy in which the patient takes thyroid hormones for life.
In order to make a decision on carrying out of surgery, patients are offered different types of treatment, and also necessary to determine the amount and kind of surgery, if interference required.
The need for surgery is not shown in all patients, and it is the partial removal of the thyroid gland. Operation is necessary for patients in whom a single node or thyroid overgrown portion has an increased secretion. After surgery, thyroid remainder will function normally.
Unlike the US, Russia surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism is used widely enough. Operations are shown, in particular, due to suspicion of cancer patients with nodular or diffuse toxic struma, and in the case of diffuse toxic goiter, antithyroid products do not cure for 4-6 months. Frequency thyroid malignancies since the Chernobyl accident increased significantly: the tumor was detected in 8-10% of the patients who underwent surgery of the thyroid gland.
Herbal treatment of hyperthyroidism is possible, but only with prior consultation with the doctor, and as an adjunct to the main conservative therapy.
Medicinal herbs are mixed. In milder cases of hyperthyroidism 1 tablespoon mixture is brewed in an enamel pot 200 grams of hot water (600) and infuse 2 hours and then filtered and taken in three steps equal doses 10 minutes before food. In severe forms it recommended infusion mixture of 3 tablespoons.
To this end, you can prepare an infusion of herbs:
- mugwort, wormwood or used for nervous disorders as a sedative - 2 tablespoons;
- peony rhizome, or root of Marin, calming the nervous system, reduces headaches and also has anti-inflammatory effects - 1 tablespoon;
- European lycopus possessing anti-inflammatory and sedating effect superior motherwort and valerian root - 3 tablespoons;
- minced burdock root, which is designed to reduce intoxication - 1 tablespoon;
- thistle curled; He has a mild sedative and anti-inflammatory effects - 2 tablespoons.
However, it should always be remembered that the presence of hyperthyroidism, treatment of folk remedies directed only to normalize (to some extent) the function of the nervous system and improved sleep, but not for the treatment of disease. The use of medicinal plants is possible only after the recommendations of the endocrinologist!
For the prevention of hyperthyroidism should undergo regular check-ups by an endocrinologist. Favorable impact on the strengthening of the thyroid gland is hardening. Diet should be rich in vitamins and minerals. It is reasonable to control the intake of iodine, the use of iodine-containing foods should be balanced.
Died should be and sunbathing, sunbathe, visit the solarium. Often myths about the usefulness of certain procedures and products lead to disturbances in the functioning of the thyroid gland, which have serious consequences.