Syndrome develops in the early years of a child's life, when there is a lack or inadequate response to auditory or visual stimuli, strange fears, repetitive behavior. If such symptoms are observed in adolescents, the diagnosis is uncertain.
The level of intellectual development in this disease may be very different from profound mental retardation to giftedness in certain fields of knowledge and art; in some cases, children with autism do not have speech, marked abnormalities in the development of motor skills, attention, perception, emotional and other areas of the psyche. More than 80% of children with autism - people with disabilities.
What it is?
Autism - a mental disorder that occurs due to various disturbances in the brain and comprehensive notes, a marked shortage of communication, as well as the restriction of social interaction, and repetitive minor interests actions.
These signs of autism usually appear from three years. If there are similar conditions but with less severe symptoms and signs, then they are referred to autistic spectrum disorders.
Causes of autism
Most often, children with RDA physically absolutely healthy, no visible external deficiencies have not seen. Mothers pregnancy is normal. Patients kids brain structure does not differ from the norm. Many overlook even a special attraction at the front of the baby's autistic.
However, in some cases, other signs of the disease still occur:
- maternal rubella infection during pregnancy;
- chromosomal abnormalities;
- tuberous sclerosis;
- cerebral palsy;
- violation of fat metabolism - obese women have a higher risk of having a baby with a congenital autism.
All of the above state a negative impact on the child's brain and can lead to the development of autism. According to studies, the role played by genetic predisposition: the presence in a family of autistic risk of developing the disease increases. However, credible reasons for not named until now.
As an autistic child perceives the world?
It is believed that autistic may not combine parts into a single image. That is, the person he sees as unrelated ears, nose, hands and other body parts. Animate inanimate objects from the sick child is virtually identical. In addition, all external stimuli (sounds, colors, light, touch) cause discomfort. Kid is trying to escape from the outside world inside.
Symptoms of autism in a child
In some children, symptoms of autism can be detected as early as infancy. Autism manifests itself most often to three years. Signs of autism can vary depending on the level of development of the child and his or her age (see. Photo).
Behavioral characteristics used to describe the syndrome of autism:
Impaired development of nonverbal and verbal communication. characterized by:
- It is normal, but to talk to the other child can not;
- It is abnormal in content and form, that is, the child repeats heard somewhere phrases that do not apply to this situation;
- Lack of facial expressions and gestures. May be absent, and speech;
- The child never smiled interlocutor, not looking him in the eye;
- These abnormal phonetically (intonation problems, the rhythm, the monotony of speech).
Impaired development of imagination, which leads to a limited range of interests. characterized by:
- Prefers privacy, games with itself;
- No imagination, and interest in the imaginary events;
- A burden to a certain subject, and feels an obsessive desire to keep it in your hands;
- Unnatural, nervous, aloof behavior;
- The child exhibits autistic tantrums at ambient conditions change;
- He feels the requirement to repeat exactly the same action;
- It focuses on one thing.
Impaired development of social skills. characterized by:
- Ignoring the feelings and the existence of other people (even parents);
- They do not share their problems with loved ones, because they do not see it as necessary;
- Children do not wish to communicate and make friends with their peers;
- Never imitate any facial expressions or gestures of others or unconsciously repeating these actions, not tying them to the situation.
People with autism differ uneven development that enables them to be talented in a certain narrow field (music, mathematics). For Autism is characterized by impaired development of social, cognitive, speech skills.
Autism in children over 11 years
Simple communication skills are mastered, but the baby prefers to spend time in a deserted area. There have been other signs:
- interest is directed to only one region, toy, cartoon, transfer;
- attention deficit;
- aimless complex movements;
- compliance with their own, often absurd from the outside of the rules;
- incomprehensible fears also take place;
- need in a uniform arrangement of furniture and belongings in the house - if you move it, the child can be hysterical or panic attack;
- the child should observe a certain sequence when dressing, waking, bedtime;
- aggression directed at themselves.
Education of children with autism is difficult, but it does not mean that everyone with autism has a low IQ - it is difficult to quickly change the type of activity and dissipate attention equally on several items. Parenting requires enormous forces exerted by the parents because if the kid potty trained or change clothes at home, this does not mean that he will be able to do it at a party or in a kindergarten.
Symptoms of the disease between the ages of 2 to 11 years
Children with autism at this age all also experience relevant for the previous period symptoms. Child in their own name does not respond, do not look into the eyes, likes to be alone, there is no interest in other children. In addition, the observed and other characteristic symptoms of the disease:
- Perhaps, again, the repetition of similar actions (peculiar rituals), while changing the usual situation for himself he has a strong concern.
- The child knows only a few words, can not talk at all.
- Perhaps the constant repetition of a child of the same words, the conversation does not support.
- Basically, the majority children with autism with great effort acquire skills, new for them at school age they do not have the ability to read or write.
Some children develop an interest in a particular type of activity, for example, in mathematics, music, painting, etc.
Signs of early childhood autism to 2 years
In most cases of the disease have been reported in children has for the first year of life. Can be observed characteristic differences between the behavior of a sick child from the behavior of their peers. Observed and the following symptoms:
- The child smiles rarely;
- No attachment to the mother. So, the baby does not cry like the other children, when she goes somewhere, she did not smile and does not pull on the handle;
- The child with autism does not look at the face of the parents, in their eyes;
- Possible improper child's response to stimuli other minor (light, muffled sounds and so forth.), In addition to this, he can feel fear because of them.
- Noted the aggressiveness of the child in relation to the other children, he does not seek to communicate with them and to general games;
- Sick child prefers to play only one toy (or a separate part thereof), the interest in the rest of the toys available;
- It notes the delay in speech development. So, for 12 months the child does not coo, do not use simple words by the age of 16 months to 24 months of age does not play simple phrases.
Meanwhile, it is important to note that these symptoms are not at all exceptional relevance indicators of autism, although it requires a certain anxiety. So avoiding child society, its silence, lost in yourself - all these symptoms should be discussed with your pediatrician.
the level of intelligence in autism
Most children with autism have a mild to moderate mental retardation. This is due to brain defects and learning difficulties. If the disease is combined with microcephaly, epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities, the level of intelligence corresponds to profound mental retardation. In milder forms of the disease and the dynamic development of speech, intelligence may be normal or even above average.
The main feature of autism is the selective intelligence. That is, children can be strong in mathematics, music, painting, but a lot to keep up with their peers in other parameters. Phenomenon when autistic extremely gifted in some areas called savantizmom. Savants can play a tune after hearing it only once. Or draw a picture as seen once, with an accuracy of half-tones. Or to keep in mind the columns of numbers, perform complex computing operations without additional funds.
Identify several levels of severity, which is even more clear that is autism:
|1 degree||Children can communicate, but in unusual circumstances are easily lost. Clumsy and slow movement; the child is not gestures, his speech amimichna. Sometimes such babies are diagnosed with mental retardation.|
|2 degree||Children do not give the impression of closed or been dismissed. They talk a lot, but to no appeal. Especially they like to tell of the sphere of its interests, which is studied thoroughly.|
|Grade 3||In a familiar environment a child is behaving normally, but when visiting new places he happens panic attack or self-injury. This patient confuses pronouns responsible useless cliches.|
|4 degree||Children do not respond to treatment, do not look in the eye, almost no say. If they are comfortable, they spend hours sitting, staring straight ahead, discomfort manifests itself in screaming and crying.|
diagnosis of autism
External clinical signs of autism in the child's first year of life are practically absent, and only experienced parents with more than one baby in the family, it is possible to notice any abnormalities in the development, with which they go to the doctor.
If the family or in the family already there are cases of autism, it is extremely important to carefully observe the child and in time, seek medical attention if necessary. The earlier the diagnosis of the child, the easier it is to adapt to the world and society.
The main methods of diagnosing autism in children are:
- examination of the child otolaryngologist and hearing tests - it is necessary to avoid delaying the development of speech due to hearing loss;
- EEG - performed to identify epilepsy, as sometimes autism can manifest epileptic seizures;
- brain ultrasound - allows you to identify or eliminate damage and abnormalities of brain structure, that can provoke symptoms;
- Testing with special questionnaires.
The parents have the right to regard the changes in the behavior of the child, who perhaps autism.
The answer to the main question: whether autism treated? -No. Cure for the disease does not exist. There is not a pill, drank that autistic child get out of their "shells" and socialized. The only way to accommodate autistic socialization - resistant everyday activities and create an enabling environment. This is a great work of parents and teachers, who are almost always pays off.
Principles of education autistic child:
- Create a favorable environment for the life, development and education of the child. Scary situation and unstable routine inhibit skills of autistic and make even deeper "to go into themselves."
- To understand what autism - a mode of existence. A child with this disease sees, hears, thinks and feels different, is different from most people.
- Connect to work with a child psychologist, a psychiatrist, a speech therapist and other specialists as needed.
At the present stage of the sick children can have only compiled competent specialist correctional program - a sequence actions that are not carried out in order to cure autism (it is not treated) and in order to maximize the child's adaptation to the environmental conditions environment.
To carry out this program is very important help from their parents, because for the baby the whole world is incomprehensible and hostile.
Correction is carried out in special rehabilitation centers (eg, Our solar world or Childhood). Correction program depends on the form and severity of the disease. It includes:
- gluten-free diet;
- behavioral therapy;
- music therapy;
- physical therapy;
Classes are different types of treatment may be conducted in various centers. So, hippotherapy is usually carried out in a specially equipped arena, therapy music - in special cabinets. Physical therapy and massage are usually conducted in a single hospital.
What to do?
Yes, autism - a disorder of child development, continuing throughout life. But thanks to early diagnosis and early remedial help can achieve great things: the child to adapt to life in society; teach him how to cope with their own fears; control emotions.
- Most importantly - do not mask the diagnosis of the allegedly "more harmonious" and "socially acceptable." Do not run away from the problem and fix attention on the negative aspects of the diagnosis, such as: disability, lack of understanding of others, family conflicts, and so on. An exaggerated idea of the child as ingenious as bad as depressed by his lack of success.
- You must not hesitate to give up tormenting illusions and arrayed in advance plans for the future. Take the child for what he really is. To act in the interests of the child, creating around him an atmosphere of love and kindness, organizing his world as long as he does not learn to do it yourself.
Remember that without your support a child with autism will not survive.
Teaching autistic child
Autistic child, as a rule, in a normal school learning can not. More often at home engaged in training parents and coming expert. In large cities, special schools are open. Training them is held by special techniques.
The most common training programs:
- "Time on the floor": technique offers treatment and training in communication skills to carry out in the form of a game (the parent or teacher of a few hours playing with her baby on the floor).
- "Applied behavioral analysis": gradual training under the supervision of a psychologist from simple skills to the formation of speech.
- The technique according to the program "More Than Words" teaches parents' understanding of non-verbal mode of communication with the child with the help of gestures, facial expressions, his eyes, and others. Psychologist (or parents) to help the child in the formation of new methods for communicating with other people, more comprehensible to them.
- Methods of learning through the exchange of cards: used when a severe form of autism, and in the absence of speech in the child. The training helps the child to remember the significance of different cards and use them to communicate. This allows the child to take the initiative and facilitates communication.
- "Social stories" - is a kind of fairy tale, written by teachers or parents. They should describe the situations that cause fear and anxiety of the child, and the thoughts and emotions of the characters stories suggest the desired behavior of the child in such a situation.
- TEASSN program: methodology recommends an individual approach to each child, taking into account its characteristics, learning objectives. This technique can be combined with other learning technologies.
Strict daily routine, regular and not always successful sessions with a child with autism, leave their imprint on the lives of the entire family. These conditions require the family members extraordinary patience and tolerance. But only love and patience will help achieve even the slightest progress.
The prognosis for autism
The number of British Studies, speaking about qualitative changes and dedicated to long-term forecast, a slight. Some matured autistic acquire minor improvements in the field of communication, but a larger number of these skills are only getting worse.
Forecasts of development of autism are: 10% of adults have some friends need some support; 19% has a relative degree of independence, but stay at home and need daily monitoring, as well as considerable support; 46% are in need of care professionals for ASD; and 12% of patients required a highly organized hospital care.
Swedish data for 2005 in a group where there were 78 adults with autism showed worse results. Of a total of only 4% lived an independent life. Since the 1990s, as well as from the beginning of the 2000s, the growth of new cases of autism increased significantly messages. From 2011-2012, the ASD was observed every 50th student in the US, as well as every 38th student of South Korea.