They are united by one thing - this pathology has never come by itself, but always secondary and is a manifestation of some other disease. Moreover, the presence of the latter, you can not even guess at, and problems with joints just become its first manifestation. arthropathy mechanisms will also vary depending on what triggered it.
What it is?
Arthropathy - joint destruction secondary to the background of other pathologies, disease states. Able to start its development in allergic reactions of various diseases associated with infections, disorders endocrine abnormalities of the internal organs of a chronic nature, metabolic disorders of the nervous system.
Valid reasons for reactive inflammation of the joints still unknown. It is believed that the joints are inflamed in the anomalous response of the immune system to get into the organism of infectious agents.
At the heart disease is an infection of the joints. As a result of incorrect operation of immunity joint tissue perceived as foreign. Allocated antibodies that affect cartilage and tendon. Some people have noted particularly prone to reactive arthritis due to hypersensitivity of the immune system to pathogens. The disease usually develops from two weeks to 1 month after infectious diseases of the genitourinary system, intestinal or respiratory system.
The most common pathogens that cause reactive arthritis are:
- E. coli;
The statistics on the most common arthropathy occur after chlamydial infection.
Typically, reactive arthritis develops in a month after undergoing genito-urinary, intestinal or respiratory infection. The disease affects one or more of the major joints of the feet (more often - the knee, the ankle, the metatarsophalangeal joint of the big toe). Often it involves the spine, muscles, tendons, joint capsules. Sometimes, the process involved the neighboring joints.
The defeat is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Pain on movement;
- Swelling, redness of the joint;
- The accumulation of inflammatory fluid in the articular cavity.
The disease is not accompanied by significant changes in the articular structures. Arthropathy is often accompanied by skin and mucous membranes with the appearance of the mucous autoimmune inflammation without pronounced symptoms. Most often it affects the eyes, urethra, tongue, gums. On the skin can be formed keratoderma (painless growths that resemble warts). In most cases the growths formed on the feet and hands. Sometimes, the process involved the nails, they become thickened, brittle and yellowish.
- Common symptoms: swollen lymph nodes (most often - inguinal).
- In severe cases, inflammation of the joints attached heart failure.
Reiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis special form) is characterized by a triad of symptoms such as arthritis, conjunctivitis and urethritis. Sometimes joins keratoderma. Symptoms appear 2-4 weeks after suffering an infectious disease.
Pain in the joints occur against the background of an allergic reaction. Arthropathy may develop as almost immediately after allergen exposure, and several days later. Diagnosis is based on the characteristic allergic symptoms: presence of fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, bronchial obstruction, etc... Blood analysis revealed hypergammaglobulinemia, eosinophilia, plasma cells and IgG class antibodies. Arthropathy phenomenon disappear after a desensitizing therapy.
Arthropathy in Reiter's syndrome
Reiter's syndrome is a triad that includes loss of organs of vision, joint and urinary tract. The most common cause of getting chlamydia, rarely syndrome is caused by Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, or occurs after enterocolitis.
Suffering individuals with genetic predisposition. Symptoms usually appear in the following order: first - acute urinary infections (cystitis, urethritis) or enterocolitis, shortly thereafter - eye disease (conjunctivitis, uveitis, iridocyclitis, retinitis, keratitis, iritis) and only after 1-1.5 months - arthropathy. In this case, the symptoms of the eyes may occur within 1-2 days, to be mild and go unnoticed.
Arthropathy is a leading sign of Reiter's syndrome and is often the first reason for seeking medical help. Usually there is an asymmetric arthritis with lesions of the lower limbs joints: ankle, knee and small joints of the foot. In this case the joints are usually involved in the inflammatory process sequentially from the bottom up, with an interval of several days.
A patient with arthropathy complains of pain, worse at night and in the morning. Joints become swollen, there is local congestion, some patients revealed effusion. Sometimes there are pains in the spine, sacroiliac disease develops, heel bursitis is possible with the rapid formation of heel spurs and inflammation of the Achilles tendon.
Arthropathy in other infectious and parasitic diseases
Arthropathy often appears on the background of various pathologies that are associated with infections and parasites. When a person suffered pathology Lyme, brucellosis and Trichinella, he has a bat arthralgia. Rubella occurs in conjunction with a symmetric polyarthritis. A arthropathy in combination with mumps similarities with rheumatoid arthritis. Such symptoms are observed:
- non-persistent inflammation in the joints;
- character while migrating;
- there is inflammation of the pericardium.
Chicken pox, mononucleosis infection appears arthropathy, which is a transient arthritis. It quickly disappears when are the main symptoms of the pathology.
Artopatiya accompanied with meningococcal disease occurs after a week after the onset of disease. Most often this is accompanied by monoartrita knee joint, but sometimes there is arthritis of large joints. Provokes the appearance of arthropathy and viral hepatitis, and the pathology manifested arthralgia or volatile arthritis, joint damage takes place symmetrically. Artopatii make themselves felt in the beginning of the disease, even when there is no jaundice.
HIV infection is associated with various disorders of the joints attributes:
- This may be arthritis, arthralgia.
- Also, it may be arthritis, AIDS-shin and knee. In this case, the work is broken limbs noticeable pain is felt.
If you treat the main disease, while signs of affected joints disappear.
This rheumatological disease, which is characterized in that deposition takes place in the joint cavity calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate.
Pyrophosphate arthropathy is divided into three forms.
|The first form is the genetic makeup of the patient||It is believed that it is the most difficult for the human body. The genetic form of inherited, in most cases, this occurs through the male line.|
|The second form is called "secondary pyrophosphate arthropathy"||It manifested in the human body due to other pathologies. Despite the fact that the disease is already known for years, but so far not established the mechanisms of secondary forms.|
|The third and last form is called "primary pyrophosphate arthropathy"||This form is isolated as a separate pathology, although the causes are unknown development, it was found that during disease is a disturbance in the enzymes responsible for the conversion of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate.|
It is not known because of what pyrophosphate arthropathy appears in the human body, for this reason, prevention, as such, no. A big plus is that even the most severe form of the disease - a genetic pyrophosphate arthropathy - does not threaten the patient's life.
Comprehensive treatment of arthropathy should begin immediately as soon as the diagnosis has been established. Carried out in two directions:
- antibiotic therapy;
- articular syndrome therapy.
Antibiotics are appointed to destroy the infectious agents that triggered the progression of the disease in children and adults.
Treatment duration was 7 days. Drug of choice:
Also in the standard treatment plan includes the following products:
- anti-inflammatory agents (non-steroidal). Are appointed in order to reduce inflammation and relieve pain;
- immunosuppressants and immunomodulators. Necessary for increasing reactivity;
- if the abnormality occurs is very difficult, the patient is required to be appointed by glucocorticoid hormones to eliminate inflammation in the joint.
As the disease develops again, it is important to treatment of the underlying pathology. Therefore, the main treatment plan can be supplemented with:
- chemotherapy (if there are systemic blood disease);
- resorting to the substitution therapy in the case of diseases of the endocrine system;
arthropathy Treatment long. Usually it is performed on an outpatient basis and only in severe cases, the patient is admitted to hospital.