Morphologically and functionally weak wall leads to an increase in diameter of the vein due to differences valvular cusps and overfilling blood vessel. As a result, formation of stagnation in the tissues, which are below the affected veins portion.
What are the causes of varicose veins?
Weakened vein walls in people can lose their elasticity. This weakening of the venous wall may cause them to expand.
- valve failure. When a person's veins are stretched, the valves in the veins are damaged. If the walls of veins and relaxed stretched apart valves and can no longer keep the blood that flows upward and as a result may stagnate in the veins.
- Vein damage. Damage may occur due to injury, blood clots or inflammation. If there are problems in the deep veins, then the person is usually sore and swollen feet. Swollen veins on the surface can be an indication of damage to deep veins. Varicose veins of the legs is not associated with dangerous blood clots that can travel to the heart or in the lungs and cause a blockage (embolism). Any clot that is formed near the surface of the body tend to be small. This may be inflammation, but the clot did not seriously endanger human health.
Several factors contribute to the development of varicose veins. These include:
- genetic predisposition to the development of varicose veins;
- hormonal factors;
- excess weight;
- cardiovascular problems - such as the formation of blood clots (thrombosis);
- injury or inflammation of the veins;
- Chronic constipation can contribute to the development of varicose veins of rectal (hemorrhoids).
Lifestyle factors also play an important role, and the people who for long periods of time have a job "on his feet", standing up - are at greater risk of developing varicose veins. This, for example, nurses, flight attendants and teachers.
The prevalence of varicose veins unusually broad.
According to different authors, in varying degrees of severity of her symptoms have up to 89% of women and 66% men among the inhabitants of the developed countries. A large study carried out in 1999 in Edinburgh showed the presence of varicose veins in 40% of women and 32% men.
An epidemiological study conducted in 2004 in Moscow showed that 67% of women and 50% of men have a chronic disease of the lower extremities. A study conducted in 2008 in another region of Russia - on the Kamchatka Peninsula showed similar situation: chronic diseases of the lower extremities occurs in women more often (67.5%) than men (41.3 %). Increasingly, there are reports on the identification of this pathology in schoolchildren.
Signs and photos
With the development of varicose veins in the legs leading symptom is the expansion of the saphenous veins, due to which the disease got its name (see. Photo). Varicose veins tend to appear at a young age, women - during or after pregnancy. there are a few, very non-specific symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Patients are disturbed by a feeling of heaviness and fatigue in the legs, distension, burning and sometimes night cramps in the calf muscles.
One of the common symptoms that appear at the very beginning of the disease, there are transient swelling and pain along the veins (often not yet been extended). When small varicose leg marked soft tissue swelling, usually in the feet, ankle and lower leg. All this symptom is so different from patient to patient, which is practically the only the best of his name should be recognized as "heavy legs syndrome" (not to be confused with the "syndrome of restless legs "). Not necessarily the presence of this syndrome predisposes to subsequent transformation of varicose veins. However, most patients with varicose veins at the beginning of the disease observed in any of the following symptoms. All of these symptoms are usually more pronounced in the evening, after work, or during prolonged standing, especially in hot weather.
The disease develops slowly - over the years, and sometimes decades. In the future, to the listed subjective symptoms align regularly appearing and disappearing in the evening to the morning swelling. First, the swelling observed in the rear ankle and foot, and then extend to the lower leg. At occurrence of edema should speak of developed chronic venous insufficiency. color of the skin becomes bluish tint. If patients at this stage do not receive appropriate treatment, in certain parts of the skin occurs hyperpigmentation legs and Lipodermatosclerosis. In more advanced cases, there are sores.
The initial stage of varicose veins on the legs
Very often as a complication of varicose disease is manifested acute thrombophlebitis of superficial veins. Sometimes damage occurs due to assembly gap and varicose bleeding. When the outpouring of blood from the node that has burst, it is possible a very significant blood loss.
- Moreover, a pressure increase occurs in the venous system of a blood flow deceleration. Because of this, it may develop hypoxia and subsequent oxygen deprivation. Because of such a state may die cage tissues that are dangerous for the organism process. Due to the pronounced stagnation of blood in the veins of the toxins accumulate in the tissues.
- Complications of this disease are also vascular occlusion by thrombus, malnutrition legs tissue pigmentation and the appearance of skin darkening. It becomes gradually more dense layer of subcutaneous fat, there dermatitis, venous trophic ulcers. In very rare cases there is degeneration of ulcers in the malignancy.
If the disease continues for a long period, then the person may subsequently develop chronic venous insufficiency.
Methods of diagnosing and staging of disease:
- Flebomanometriya in which the measured pressure within the veins.
- Scanning veins, the results of which can be determined by the condition of the venous valves and walls.
- Phlebography. This procedure is administered a contrast agent inside the vein followed radiographs.
- Ultrasonic Doppler flowmetry or allowing to identify the flow rate and occupancy veins.
- In the early stages VRVNK appoint Perthes sample Sheynis, Troyanova, Pretto and others who point to the development of varicose veins.
- Flebostsintigrafiya - examination of lymph nodes and veins with the use of radionuclides.
- Photoplethysmography - inspection using photodiodes.
- Echosclerotherapy - sclerosant injected into the veins, then they are scanned.
- Thermography - screening using infrared radiation.
- Computer venography.
Immediately all kinds of survey has never appointed. Usually fairly easy to diagnose varicose veins have one or two methods, which determines the physician according to the patient's condition.
Venotoniki possible to protect the walls of veins, stimulate the venous drainage and multiple improves. By this means the forces for reducing the severity of pain and edema during the course reception condition. Showing rates twice a year for a duration of at least 2 months.
Remove the pain, heaviness in the legs caused by varicose veins can help special gels and ointments. Get rid of varicose veins, they are unlikely to help, considering the local impact and poor penetration through the skin, but will remove the symptoms of the disease, and will facilitate the state.
Among the means for external application can be identified:
- Venitan - in the ointment, which is recommended locally twice daily, contains an extract of horse chestnut.
- Troksevazin - based ointment derived bioflavonoid rutin. Improved drainage is achieved with tablets reception (see. anticoagulants of direct action).
- Antistax - the active principle of a gel or spray Antistax - is an extract from grape leaves. The manufacturer promises a treatment effect no earlier than 6 weeks of use. There are capsules Antistax taken on an empty stomach in the amount of two pieces.
By tableted venotoniki resort in cases of varicose veins deep veins.
- The most effective drugs: Detraleks and Phlebodia 600 basically are diosmin. He is a powerful venotoniki. Detraleks taken on a tablet twice a day. Flebodia 600 - on the tablet in the morning. The course of treatment for 2 months to six months.
- Saponin derivatives are prepared on the basis of the horse chestnut, which contains the plant bioflavonoids escin. Aescusan The drug is sold in pills or drops.
- - The natural Rutoside include Venoruton formerastvorimyh in tablets and capsules.
- Rutoside were the first venotoniki. They improve microcirculation and have anti-inflammatory effect.
- - By semisynthetic: Venolan, Troxevasin, Troxerutin. Combined Rutoside - it Ginkor Fort. It combines troxerutin and ginkgo biloba. Drug taking 2 capsules in the morning and evening during the month. If necessary, extend the course.
varicose veins treatment at home is not only possible but also necessary. In the early stages of developing this disease treatments will help strengthen the walls of blood vessels and help prevent its further development.
As a mandatory element of the treatment of varicose veins is to wear a special compression underwear. This linen must be selected individually depending on the degree of varicose veins. Doctor phlebologist-based diagnosis should recommend the compression ratio when choosing clothes.
The degree of compression different from the stage of the disease and has a different effect. Underwear with a low level typically used for predisposition to varices and prophylactic purposes. The high degree of compression is recommended when expressed varices and has a therapeutic effect. It is able to take the weight off the affected vascular areas, redistributing pressure and stimulating blood circulation, prevents venous stasis.
Underwear should be worn on a regular basis, especially at elevated physical activity, long holding time on their feet or, conversely, when sedentary. It comes in the form of tights, stockings, golf. The model is chosen taking into account the nature of the location of varicose veins. Presented separately for pregnant line as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent.
Before class, you must soak a few minutes, holding the legs in an elevated position to prepare the body for exercise. The pace and speed of individual exercises, in accordance with the physical features. In carrying out physical education importantly - regularity.
In the prone position:
- Bicycle. The back and loin are firmly pressed to the floor pedal.
- Vertical shears. Hand along the trunk, cross our legs like scissors.
- Working with the feet. In supine bend and unbend, makes a circular motion in the ankle joints.
In a standing position, as well as sitting at your desk, you can perform the following exercises. Each exercise is repeated 20 times
- Ascent (socks - together). Socks are parallel, pressed against each other. We rise on socks, freeze in this position for a few seconds, go down to the floor.
- Ascent (socks - apart). Heels together, toes apart. We go up on his toes, then go down to the floor.
- Ascent (heel - apart). Socks together, heels apart. Movement carried out as in the previous exercises.
Several times a day is recommended the use of a contrast shower. Massaging the feet alternately cold and hot running water for about 5 minutes each.
Folk remedies for the treatment of varicose veins
It is important to understand that their application, mostly directed to the removal of the symptoms of complications, especially thrombophlebitis, and not to treatment of the underlying disease. The use of these methods in the home should not be a substitute for drug therapy in the early stages of development of varicose veins and, especially, surgical treatment at the full-scale clinical picture.
- Tincture of horse chestnut. Use of green skins peeled off. Pre-Grind them, vodka poured from the calculation 10 c. (Two teaspoons) per 100ml chestnut. vodka. Infuse for two weeks in a dark place for about a month and is applied 3 times a day 30 drops.
- It is also recommended that a therapeutic baths for the feet of the concoctions of herbs. These baths should be warm. The good effect is obtained by using the morning bath of infusion of burdock, birch leaves, nettles. To prepare this infusion, you should take a teaspoon of chopped herbs and pour one liter of boiling water. The infusion should be to stand for several hours. Tray lasts about 290 minutes. To improve vascular tone effectively use the same trays from the infusion collecting grass nettle, camomile, lemon balm and oregano.
- Hirudotherapy - treatment of medical leeches by applying to varicose veins. It applies only when thrombophlebitis. Method dangerous risk of joining secondary infections and the development of bleeding sites. A great alternative is to use analog medical - heparin ointment in the early stages of the disease. For the prevention of thrombosis can apply it in the later stages, avoiding contact with sores.
Remember, varicose veins - surgical disease, so its radical treatment is possible only by surgical methods. People with risk factors and family history of varicose veins must be once every 2 years to consult with phlebologist mandatory ultrasound veins.
The expediency of surgery is considered a medical phlebologist or vascular surgeon. Women who need surgery to correct a cosmetic defect, doctors suggest to postpone the operation, if the pregnancy is planned. This is due to the fact that during gestation progresses varices, and the effect of the operation can be offset.
- Phlebectomy. It lasts for about 1.5 hours. It is to remove the sick veins. You may need to stay in a sanatorium during the recovery period. There is a risk the conservation of small scars.
- Sclerotherapy. One of the classic methods, when a vein segment is introduced below the damaged special substances glueing vein wall. Most often this procedure is used to remove the extensions on the small venous vessels without anesthesia.
- Laser coagulation. It is considered the most modern method of how to remove the varicose veins on the legs. After the puncture is made special anesthesia, followed by endovasal obliteration. There is a lot of requirements in the postoperative period. So immediately after the coagulation of the doctor puts a compression bandage, which is worn continuously for 5 days.
- Radiofrequency coagulation. The method is similar in the previous manipulation, but the destruction of blood cells produced by the action of ultra-wave spectrum.
What to do after the surgery? Of course, obey all the surgeon's recommendations. This behavior will allow you soon to be rehabilitated, which also comes the need for conservative rehabilitation of the lower extremities. If the doctor recommends to go to a sanatorium or make home compresses with Aloe, hydrogen peroxide, iodine or soap - listen to the expert and do not be lazy to go to the goal.
Advice on nutrition
One of the risk factors for varicose veins is excess weight. Therefore, diet is one of the factors of treatment. Power must be balanced so that the received calories do not exceed the required number for everyday needs. The number of calories varies depending on the presence or absence of loads. From the diet should also remove the hot spices, pickles, peppers, excess salt, alcohol, meats and eat less fried.
The menu should consist of a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables containing vitamin C, foods that contain large amounts of fiber, seafood, wholemeal bread. It recommended frequent split meals. It is important to note that animal fats in moderation should be present. You should not listen to those who say that cholesterol - is an absolute evil. Cholesterol in reasonable quantities helps to strengthen the vascular wall, reducing the risk of fractures and veins repeated thrombotic deposits.
How to prevent the development of varicose veins?
Prevention of varicose veins is as follows:
- Optimum physical activity in any possible case without extreme fatigue.
- Using compression underwear.
- To preserve the venous tone useful to use a contrast shower subject feet hygiene.
- Wearing compression underwear.
- Prevention of constipation by normalization of diet with high content of foods rich in plant fiber.
- Less commonly used high-heeled shoes. Heels should not exceed 5 cm.
- Clothing should be loose and not hamper the movements.
- When long journeys on planes or buses is necessary to "warm up" leg - stand up, make a circular motion feet. In these situations it is necessary to avoid alcohol and drink more drinking water. Useful way to wear compression stockings.
- It recommended during sleep to attach the legs elevated position by podkladyvaniem roller or raising edge of the bed.
- Useful when sleep did not immediately undermined by the bed, and do some exercises for legs: a circular motion to stop, simulated cycling.
- When prolonged static loads with vertical or sedentary position recommended every half hour produce simple exercise: move in a standing position with the load on the toe socks, rising up 15-20 time. In this way, it runs in the course of a kind of "muscle pump" hard drives away stagnant blood towards the heart. In these situations, useful several times a day to take a horizontal position. If it is impossible, at least for 15-20 minutes to throw back legs in a sitting position on a nearby chair. In addition to this - poprisedat several times.
Regular implementation of these measures will significantly reduce the risk and progression of the disease.