But worst of all, when this situation is repeated at intervals of a few months or even weeks. In this case, it could be a more serious form of the disease, that is, chronic bronchitis, which causes a person a lot of problems and difficult to treat. So, for whatever the grounds to recognize the chronic form of the disease, and how to get rid of it permanently?
What it is?
Chronic bronchitis - creeping pathology accompanied by cough (dry, wet), and shortness of breath. It considered a chronic recurring within 2 years of the inflammation of the bronchi with clinical manifestations of 3 months. and more. Bronchial mucosa loses function when this regeneration (recovery), and changes may affect the lung tissue and lead to fatal consequences for the whole organism.
The causes of the chronic form
In the occurrence of chronic inflammation such factors may be involved in the bronchi:
- Tobacco smoke. The main risk group for the development of chronic bronchitis are smokers;
- Decreased immunity. It becomes favorable background for start microbial agent;
- Chemical polyutanty. All chemical compounds which pairs regularly inhaled man, like dust cause bronchial reaction as inflammation or bronchoconstriction;
- Climatic conditions. Climatic conditions are rarely the root cause. But they have a common adverse background, which implemented all other causes. These include low temperatures, high humidity and industrial air pollution;
- Infection. They are represented by bacterial, viral and atypical pathogens. Very rarely, only this factor is sufficient for the emergence of chronic process. Necessarily be its combination with other factors that will maintain a negative influence each other. It is extremely important in this respect belongs to chronic foci of infection in the tonsils, sinuses and decayed teeth;
- Working in conditions of occupational hazards. In such cases, the constant inhalation of air contaminated with coal dust, or other species, leads to its precipitation in the bronchi. Natural reaction of an organism to foreign particles is inflammatory. Naturally, in the context of the ongoing inflow of dust particles self-cleaning mechanisms may not have time to pull all the accumulated fat. This is the basis of synchronization process;
- Genetic predisposition and innate characteristics of the bronchial tree. A very important group of the causes for which the bronchi initially susceptible to any environmental hazards. Minimum provocateurs cause bronchoconstriction and increased mucus production. Hindered its outflow contributes to the activation of the infection, the maintenance of inflammation with the development of bronchial obstruction.
Triggering mechanism of chronic inflammation in the wall of the bronchus rather complicated. It is impossible to select only some one factor that first realizes it. The exception is the professional and chronic bronchitis smokers.
See also: All about acute bronchitis.
By the nature of sputum are the following types of chronic bronchitis:
- bleeding (blood in the discharge from the bronchi);
Depending on which of the bronchial tree department amazed diagnose proximal bronchitis (large bronchi) or distal (affecting the bronchial tubes).
In accordance with the presence or absence of bronchospastic component obstructive bronchitis and divided into non-obstructive. The disease may be in remission or exacerbation be uncomplicated or complicated (e.g., emphysema).
The first signs
The main symptoms of chronic bronchitis in remission:
- dyspnea (obstructive bronchitis "bronchitis smoker");
- sweating (with little physical activity, at night).
Intensity of symptoms individual depends on the degree of change in bronchial walls, the patient's age.
Symptoms of chronic bronchitis
Symptomatology of the disease is characterized by vivid expression and represented by the following manifestations:
- Cough. It is the main symptom of chronic bronchitis, which identifies the disease as well as the entire clinical picture in general. At the initial stage of the disease cough makes itself felt only in the morning of day with little phlegm. In the development of the disease becomes more wet and palpitations.
- Sputum. At the initial stage sputum disease characterized by the appearance in end coughing small amount of mucus secretions in the form having a transparent or yellowish. The development of chronic bronchitis is caused by the presence of purulent sputum viscous with a green tint, indicating that additional bacterial infection.
- Dyspnea. It appears as a result of highly active inflammatory process in the bronchi. Initially it occurs when performing any type of physical stress. Further, in the course of disease progression, begins accompanied by cough and occur even at rest.
- Wheezing. Sputum provokes difficulties by circulating air masses that is caused by the presence of wheezing. In the case of wheezing weakening diseases are dry in nature, that is easy to listen to. If there is an exacerbation of inflammation is an increase in amount of sputum expectorated, and wheezing become wet. If the affected small bronchi, the wheezing begin wearing a whistling character that is heard clearly at a distance.
- Cyanosis. The appearance of symptoms is not characteristic of normal course of the disease. Change the color of the skin indicating the activation of complications when the bronchi are not able to properly carry out the mass flow of air to the lungs. The result is a bluish tint.
- asthma syndrome. The occurrence of asthma syndrome can be associated with a prolonged course of inflammation or bronchospasm, which suggests the possibility of occurrence of the syndrome at any stage of the disease.
Chronic obstructive bronchitis
obstructive form the disease first occurs malosimptomno. Then she appears hoarse cough, and shortness of breath whistling in the morning, which disappears after expectoration.
The main features of chronic obstructive bronchitis are the following:
- strong unproductive cough;
- severe exertional dyspnea and respiratory tract irritation;
- wheezing on exhalation;
- lengthening the exhalation phase.
Treatment of chronic bronchitis
This is a whole range of activities. Depending on which phase of the disease is the patient - remission or exacerbation of the doctor chooses the tactics of treatment.
In exacerbations is important:
- Eliminate inflammation in bronchi;
- Normalize slizeotdelenie;
- To improve ventilation, to eliminate bronchospasm;
- Support the work of the heart.
During the relative attenuation of the disease requires
- To eliminate pockets of nasal infection;
- Conduct health-kurrortnoe treatment;
- Engage in breathing exercises
Scheme of treatment and drugs used for chronic bronchitis:
- Elimination of provoking factors. It should be remembered that there is no medical therapy does not give results without removing the cause. However, quitting smoking, lasting 20 years or more, will not bring the desired success due to irreversible changes in the mucosa.
- Antibiotics. Used in purulent and purulent-catarrhal bronchitis, catarrh when they usually do not need! Are appointed after examination of sputum. This gives the physician information on bacterial sensitivity to a particular drug. In the case where it is impossible to examine the sputum, appointed antibiotics penicillin group. Recently used and highly effective medicines Sumamed, Rulid, as it is sensitive to the majority of chronic bronchitis-causing microorganisms. Antibiotic reserve group, Gentamycin, in the absence of a positive effect is delivered directly into the bronchi under hospital treatment.
- Considering that in chronic bronchitis treatment can be long enough, do not forget about the support of one of the most important organs of the human body - the liver. In fact, this body is a natural filter and passes through all the chemical elements themselves, the liver cells slacken and die. To restore and maintain the liver need to take vegetable gepatoprotektory (CARS, Darcy, milk thistle extract, gepatofit).
- Bronchodilators. Assigned when the first attacks of obstruction. The attending physician selects one of the preparations: Atrovent, Salbutamol, Berodual (combination preparation) or the ineffectiveness Theophylline aforementioned means.
- Expectorants. Advisability of taking drugs, liquefying sputum (ACC, Fluimucil) mukoregulyatory (Mucosolvan, Bromhexine) and reflexly acting means (potassium iodide, syrups marshmallow and plantain).
- Immunopodderzhivayuschie means. In recent years, the treatment of chronic bronchitis are increasingly being used specifically affecting the immune system drugs. This Timalin or T-activin. The positive effect of vitamins C, A, immunomodulators of plant origin also affects the successful treatment of chronic bronchitis.
- If exacerbation of chronic bronchitis caused by flu or SARS virus, it is advisable to take antiviral drugs (groprinozin, amizon, anaferon, aflubin).
- Inhalation. The best option inhalations in chronic bronchitis - a nebulizer, which provides admission antibacterial (Dioksidin et al.), inflammatory (Rotokan) and expectorants even small bronchi.
- Physical methods. Massage and breathing exercises (especially effective respiration techniques to Butejko and Strelnikovoj) markedly improves the purification of bronchial mucus. The only condition: the regularity of procedures.
Breathing exercises - the main physical therapy procedure shown helps to cure chronic bronchitis forever. It can consist not only of passive breathing exercises, but also to involve the whole body.
One of the most famous complexes of breathing exercises has been developed in the USSR AN Strelnikovoj and bears her name. He, for example, involves the use of arms, legs, shoulder tension, abdominal belt. Due to the complex exercise intensified tissue respiration, tones up the respiratory system starts a cascade of reactions that stimulate the immune system and improves mood.
In general, at a bronchitis in the chronic stage are useful any moderate exercise: walking, climbing stairs, exercise, swimming.
This is one of the most effective in bronchitis physiotherapy. Inhalation can be steam and by fine. Such procedures can be carried out both in the hospital and home. To use steam inhalation pairs Herbs, essential oils, sodium hydrogen carbonate. For fine via inhalation using a nebulizer herbal infusions, mineral water type "Borjomi" drugs thinning mucus (ACC, mukolvan, a hypertonic solution of potassium or sodium iodide).
Remove bronchospasm help lytic mixture introduced via the inhaler:
- 0.1% atropine solution - 2 ml
- adrenaline 0.1% solution - 2 ml
- dimedrola 0.1% solution - 2 ml.
All ingredients are mixed, filled into the reservoir of the inhaler and administered by the fine spray into the respiratory organs. The advantage of this method is that inhalation can be used for a long time - up to 2-3 months.
Especially diet and lifestyle with bronchitis
Against the background of acute bronchitis usually recommend drinking plenty. For an adult - a daily fluid intake should be at least 3 - 3.5 liters. Typically alkaline juice are well tolerated, hot milk with mineral water at a ratio of 1: 1.
The daily diet should contain adequate amounts of protein and vitamins. Against high temperature and general intoxication can starve little (if this body, of course, requires) but generally any restrictive diets are contraindicated in these patients.
It shows the use of high efficiency inhalation using a nebulizer. As a solution for inhalation can be used mineral water, Ringer's solution or normal saline. Procedures are carried out 2-3 times a day for 5-10 days. manipulation of data promotes discharge moktroty facilitate drainage of the bronchial tree, reduce inflammation.
Need lifestyle interventions to address risk factors for infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract. In particular this applies to smoking, and various kinds of occupational hazards (dusty production, working with paints, frequent hypothermia, etc.). Excellent effect of chronic lung diseases is the use of breathing exercises, for example, Strelnikovoj method. This also applies to chronic bronchitis.
Non-acute bronchitis can host events for hardening.
Prediction and prevention
The period of remission is characterized by a decrease in dry cough, which is not accompanied by shortness of breath. Marked improvement bronchial obstruction. It is not necessary at this time to forget about secondary prevention, which will not allow to happen relapse. The most important condition in order to forget about the bronchitis is always a healthy lifestyle, with smoking cessation. The air in the room where the person has to have a normal humidity, so you should use a humidifier or at least to place the water tank when it is over-dried.
Clothes should always fit the weather conditions, should not be cold in it. Since the patient is prone to bronchitis, excessive sweating, then it should not provoke the overheating of the body. When working with hazardous substances need to take unprecedented measures to protect, and, ideally, completely change the scope of activities. Not superfluous will walk in the fresh air and tempering.