Rashes, inflammation of the epidermis, redness, itching - the result of activity of pathogenic microorganisms. The amplified reproduction of streptococci, staphylococci, fungi leads to extensive destruction of skin.
What it is?
Pyoderma - pustular skin disease is caused by pyogenic bacteria are, chief among which are staphylococci and streptococci, a little less - Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas wand. Pyoderma is more common in children and workers in some industries and agriculture.
The increased incidence observed in autumn and winter - cold and wet time of the year. The humid climate of tropical countries is the cause of a large number of patients with fungal infections and pustular skin diseases.
The leading cause of causing pyoderma is considered cocci bacteria penetration into the tissue of the hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands with ducts damage. However, the causes of secondary forms of pyoderma, including ulcerative, gangrenous species is still being studied, since such cases, sowing pyogenic agents of the skin - the second, ie, occurs after the development of certain pathology.
Highlights the key factors provocateurs:
- changes in the functioning of the endocrine organs ( "thyroid", hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands, gonads), hormonal failures;
- skin lesions (wounds, injections, abrasions, bites, scratches, burns);
- acute or long-term reduction of general and local immunity;
- cutaneous pathologies including allergozavisimye dermatitis, Chuck defeat;
- skid pyogenic flora during surgical manipulation;
- increased sensitivity to allergens and the reaction to piokokki;
- humidity, absorption capacity, alkaline reaction of the skin;
- intolerance to certain drugs;
- frequent overcooling or overheating;
- neurological disorders and thermoregulation system
- failure to comply with personal hygiene;
- periodic skin injury in certain areas;
- long-term experience and a strong physical fatigue;
- depletion, any long ongoing disease;
- obesity, a disorder of fat and carbohydrate metabolism;
- epidermal pollution paints, kerosene, solvents, oils, a varnish, coal dust, gasoline, cement;
- Cardiovascular disease varicosity, thrombophlebitis, Hematopoietic disorders, gastrointestinal diseases;
- focal infections with inflammation in a certain organ or tissue, including the stomach, intestines, and the nasopharynx region of the ear, the reproductive organs.
The main micro-organisms that cause pyoderma are streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes) and Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus). Percentage of diseases caused by other microflora (Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli, psevdomonoznoy infection, pneumococcus and the like) are very small.
Therefore, the main classification of the nature of the causative agent is divided into:
- stafilodermiyu - purulent inflammation;
- streptoderma - serous inflammation;
- streptomycin-stafilodermiyu - purulent serous inflammation.
In addition, any pyoderma varies according to the mechanism of occurrence:
- Primary - manifested in healthy skin;
- secondary - has become a complication of other diseases (most often accompanied by itching).
In addition, the share of pyoderma infection depth. Therefore, pyoderma general classification is as follows:
- in surface contamination depth (strep impetigo, sifilidopodobnoe impetigo, bullous impetigo, impetigo intertriginoznoy (slit), the annular impetigo, perleche strep, felon superficial streptococcal impetigo dry);
- during deep penetration (acute streptococcal cellulitis, ecthyma vulgar).
By stafilodermiyam rank:
- in surface contamination depth (superficial folliculitis, ostiofollikulit, acne vulgaris, Sycosis vulgaris, pemphigus newborn epidemic);
- during deep penetration (depth folliculitis, furuncle, furunculosis, carbuncle, hidradenitis).
By the streptococcal-stafilodermiyam include:
- when the surface depth of infection (impetigo vulgar);
- during deep penetration (ulcer chronic pyoderma, pyoderma shankriformnuyu).
The symptoms of pyoderma, photos
The inflammatory process in pyoderma develops in the natural pores of the skin - the sweat or sebaceous passes, the hair follicles. Depending on the type of microorganisms-activators of the clinical picture and symptoms of the disease too varied.
Therefore, we present the main symptoms of pyoderma (see. Photo):
- Impetigo. This form of the disease is quite advanced. Its symptoms appear suddenly with the appearance phlyctenas (watery, millet bubble), which are subsequently converted to yellowish brown and heavily scratched. At the confluence of scabs and crusts staphylococcal infections may be greenish. The consequences of their solution are in the form of scaly patches, hard-to-tan. The most commonly affected area of the face and head.
- Sycosis - chronic recurrent purulent inflammation of hair follicles facial (mustache and beard). The disease is associated with allergization patient and neuroendocrine disorders, often with hypogonadal. First, the lips and chin pustules appear small, then there are more. Around zone arises with purulent inflammatory infiltrate crusts. Pyoderma face flows a long, hard, with relapses.
- Ostiofollikulit - inflammation of the mouth of the hair follicle. The hole appears follicle nodule size of 2-3 mm, pierced hair, there is a small area around the skin redness. Then bubble dries, a crust is formed which is then eliminated. These structures can be single or multiple. Sometimes the disease is recurrent in nature.
- hydradenitis - inflammation of the sweat glands. It occurs in the armpit, the labia, perianal area, in the groin. It formed a large painful knot, which opened with pus. The disease resembles a boil, but it is not formed necrotic core in the center of the tumor.
- Furuncle - more widespread defeat of the follicle with purulent melting it and the surrounding tissues. Process begins with ostifollikulita but once painful pustules. Quickly formed painful node reaches the size of a walnut. Then he opened with the release of pus in the center you can see the necrotic core - lifeless follicles. After healing, scar remains.
- folliculitis - deep inflammation of the hair follicle. Shaped elevation of pink in the center of which is an abscess, imbued hair. Then that entity or absorbed turns into an ulcer healing with the formation of a small scar.
- Carbuncle boils differs from the higher prevalence of the process. Developing a deep abscess, reaching the subcutaneous tissue, fascia and muscles. Initially, there is a boil, but then around him develop severe swelling of skin openings draining pus. Soon the skin melted and torn away from the formation of deep ulcers. Pyoderma patient worries expressed by fever, headache and intoxication. After cleansing the ulcer heals, forming a scar.
These pyoderma common in children, in adults they do not occur:
- Multiple skin abscess - an inflammation of the sweat glands in young children. The disease occurs when excessive sweating and poor care of the baby. At the back, neck, buttocks having multiple nodes the size of a pea, reddened skin over them. Gradually nodes enlarge and turn into abscesses, of which pus.
- Ostioporit - inflammation of excretory ducts of sweat glands in infants. In the groin, armpit, on the head and body appear small pustules. They quickly shrivel in the crust and fall off, leaving no trace. The disease is usually caused by excessive sweating of the child as a result of changing mat.
- Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome - a severe form of pyoderma. On the skin of large bubbles are formed that resemble burns 2 degrees. The disease begins with redness around the navel, the anus, the mouth, and then on the skin blisters occur. They burst, forming a large oozing erosion. Bubbles may coalesce, grabbing all the baby's skin. The disease is accompanied by fever and intoxication.
- Epidemic pemphigoid - a highly contagious disease characterized by the formation of bubbles in the surface layer of the skin soon after birth. On it there are bubbles that gradually grow and burst with the formation of erosions heal quickly. Then there is a new vspyshkoobraznoe rash blisters.
Forms of pyoderma are many and varied, but the methods of treatment are essentially very similar. However, before you take him, you should make an accurate diagnosis.
Major diagnostic criteria are the characteristic elements of rashes on the body (pustules phlyctenas).
In order to establish the exact form of the disease and its causative agent is applied causing the microscopic method for investigating the discharge of pus cells. biopsy can be used in deep tissue damage. In cases of severe disease occurring blood sampling is recommended to determine the glucose level (goal - elimination of diabetes). When the total blood analysis is often observed an increase in performance leukocyte ESR.
Differential diagnosis with skin manifestations of tuberculosis, syphilis, parasitic and fungal epidermal lesions, candidiasis, microbial eczema.
The severe consequences of pustular disease are observed at:
- untimely treatment in a medical institution;
- weak immunity;
- passing an incomplete course of therapy;
- applied questionable methods of treatment;
- poor health;
- maintaining the precipitating factors.
- swollen lymph nodes;
- scars in areas of self-removal of pustules; bone infection;
- blood poisoning;
- cerebral thrombosis;
- inflammation of internal organs.
How to treat pyoderma?
pyoderma treatment is carried out under the supervision of qualified professionals. Usually, the doctor prescribes medication for indoor and outdoor applications, including the restoration of immune forces.
- diagnosis and therapy of related diseases (hormonal imbalance, diabetes, immunodeficiency);
- eliminating adverse effects on the skin (damage, pollution, exposure to high or low temperature);
- power limiting refined carbohydrates, the prevalence of protein, fiber, dairy products;
- prohibition of washing (shower, bathtub), wash only local unaffected areas of the skin with great care so as not to spread the infection;
- trimming hair in the lesion;
- skin treatment around the ulcers twice a day with a solution of salicylic alcohol.
Required special low-carb diet should be followed. For the treatment of pyoderma various kinds of drugs, the following medications:
- It recommended an antibiotic using a semi-synthetic macrolides, penicillins, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, latest-generation cephalosporins);
- in severe disease development used glucocorticosteroid drugs (hydrocortisone, metipred etc;
- pyoderma with assigned reception gepatoprotektorov (Essentiale forte Silibor etc.);
- recommended use angioprotectors (Actovegin, Trental);
- appointed reception cytostatics (methotrexate).
For antiseptics erosive ulcers must use ointments with a bactericidal effect. The most commonly used in the treatment of pyoderma:
- Ointment salitsilovo- zinc or zinc paste;
- tetracycline ointment;
- ointment lincomycin;
- erythromycin ointment;
- gioksizon ointment, etc.
In addition, there are preparations for the comprehensive treatment, providing anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal effects. The most popular are the ointment Timogen and Triderm.
When pyoderma accompanied by the appearance of ulcers, inflammatory foci should be rinsed after the aseptic removal of eschar (tannins Furacilinum, boric acid, Dioxydinum, chlorhexidine et al.).
When carbuncles, boils, gidradenity can be applied to the affected area with a sterile bandage ihtiola + Dimexidum, chymotrypsin and trypsin. In addition, the affected part of the body is often bandaged with Tomitsidom.
Adherence to the basic rules of personal hygiene is the primary preventive measure. In addition, it is recommended:
- eat right;
- avoid stress and fatigue;
- vitamin therapy on a regular basis;
- observe the regime of the day;
- provide child restful sleep;
- regularly cut nails;
- strengthen the immune system;
- promptly handle any damage baby's skin;
- to combat excessive sweating.
All preventive measures that help prevent infection of children pyoderma, familiar to parents. It is their direct parental responsibilities. If a child is a child to instill a healthy lifestyle, no cocci it will be terrible. The only exceptions are unexpected external circumstances that it is impossible to predict (inadvertently microtraumas skin, contact with a carrier of the pathogen, and so on. D.).