Miscellaneous

Dry eye syndrome is what it is and how to treat?

Described syndrome - pathology, in which the reduced production of tears, or changing the composition of the tear fluid. Because of this, the cornea is the eye does not get the required moisture. This creates serious discomfort to man, and, in the absence of appropriate treatment and moisturizing, always causes corneal injury. As a consequence - a serious vision problems.

In medicine directly called "dry eye syndrome" appeared not so long ago. Before this selection insufficient tears associated with Sjogren's syndrome. It is an autoimmune disorder rarely occurs only on the functioning of the lacrimal gland, often it is one of the symptoms of other diseases. Many patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, complained of dryness and burning in the eyes.

What it is?

Dry eye syndrome called complex disease, based on the violation corneal hydration, because of which it arises and drying malfunction. This reduces the quality or quantity of lacrimal fluid, forming on the surface of conjunctiva lachrymal film which has a protective function.

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Causes of

Among the conditions that cause a decrease in the qualitative composition and the amount of tear fluid produced, experts identify the following causes of dry eye syndrome:

  1. The lack of vitamins in the diet;
  2. Violation of the regime of rest and sleep (computer work, with small objects, prolonged reading);
  3. Environmental factors (polluted air, the wind, dry air);
  4. Wearing contact lenses that do not correspond to the size and have low quality;
  5. Endocrine disorders that occur in women during menopause and menopause, endocrine ophthalmopathy;
  6. Any condition of the body, which does not allow the eye is completely closed, a factor provoke the development of dry eye because the eye is washed tear fluid only when fully closing;
  7. Autoimmune conditions, connective tissue disease. The uncontrolled growth of connective tissue in the body can lead to a complete blockage of the tear ducts, insufficient development occurs correspondingly lacrimal fluid disrupted by the process of its distribution corneal surface;
  8. Parkinson's disease, Infections and skin diseases, renal disease, pregnancy, lacrimal gland dysfunction, chronic conjunctivitis, inflammatory eye disease, severe neurological diseases, as well as a strong depletion of the body can cause the development of dry syndrome eye;
  9. Prolonged therapy certain medications (antiaritmichnymi, antihypertensive) leads to reducing fluid production and dehydration, the viscosity increases accordingly tears and dropping them quantity. Long-term use of antihistamines, corticosteroids, oral contraceptives, not controlled application of eye ointments, drops and with anticholinergic, a beta blocker, anesthetics leads to lower production volumes lacrimal liquid.

Depending on the pathogenesis (development mechanism), dry eye syndrome is:

  • Due to a reduced secretion of lacrimal fluid;
  • Due to increased evaporation of tear fluid;
  • Combined.

Depending on the etiology (origin) syndrome is divided into:

  • Symptomatic, that is arising in the background of a disease;
  • Syndromic, that is incurred on their own;
  • Artefitsialny, that is evolved due to unfavorable environmental conditions (dry air, etc.).

There are three degrees of severity of the syndrome: mild, moderate and severe.

development mechanism

Dry eye is due to existing eye protective film covering the cornea and lacrimal fluid produced which it continually wets.

The protective film consists of three layers:

  1. Mucin layer - produced by goblet cells of the conjunctiva and cornea covers, making its surface smooth and flat; its function - to keep the tear film on the corneal epithelium; the thickness of this layer is 0.02-0.05 mm, it is only 0.5% of the film thickness;
  2. The aqueous (watery) layer - is produced by the lacrimal gland and consists of biologically active substances and dissolved electrolytes; continuously updated and supplies the corneal epithelium and conjunctiva with nutrients and oxygen, and also provides for removal of carbon dioxide molecules, metabolic waste and dead epithelial cells. The thickness of this layer is about 7 microns, which is more than 90% of the tear film;
  3. The lipid layer - covers the outside of the water layer and generating the meibomian glands; responsible for the sliding of the upper eyelid and the eyeball protection, prevents evaporation of the aqueous layer, and excessive heat transfer of its epithelium.

Furthermore, healthy eyes always contains a small amount of tear fluid during blinking which washes it. Lacrimal fluid has a complex composition, produced by a group of glands, 2 ml daily in less emotional state, because, as you know, in the case of emotional turmoil tear fluid production sharply increases.

Furthermore lacrimal fluid generation system, and the system has excess moisture outflow from the eye. With excess lacrimal tears drain into the nasal cavity, it becomes very noticeable when a man cries - he always appear runny nose. Also, the system allows the outflow of tear fluid and updated to perform corneal power function.

This syndrome is diagnosed in 10-20% of the population and is more common in women (70%). The frequency of the disease is directly related to age: in the age of 50 account for only 12% of cases. 42-43% of people with this syndrome noted a significant deterioration of vision, have difficulty reading.

Symptoms of dry eye syndrome

Severity of clinical symptoms (see. photo) depends largely on the severity of the disease. As well, the person complains of an unpleasant dryness of the eyes. He also does not tolerate the wind, the air from the air conditioner, smoke. As a general rule, in response to irritants in a patient there is excessive tearing.

In dry eye syndrome may indicate such symptoms:

  • fear of glare;
  • decrease in visual acuity at the end of the working day;
  • cramps, burning, discomfort in the eyes;
  • feeling of sand in the conjunctival cavity;
  • redness and conjunctival swelling, occurrence of mucoid material.

Due to prolonged dryness of the anterior part of the eyeball in a human cornea is damaged. Perhaps the appearance of filamentous keratitis, Corneal erosion, dry eye. Some patients formed konyunktivohalazis - superimposing the conjunctiva of the lower edge of the eyelid.

Effects

Even a mild form of dry eye syndrome requires adequate medical treatment to prevent serious and irreversible effects, which can be as follows:

  • Infection of the eye tissue;
  • Corneal injury;
  • The formation of different erosions;
  • Partial or complete loss of vision.

Preventive measures are to limit the negative impact of external factors, timely treatment of internal diseases, a balanced diet and the use of sufficient amount of liquid.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of dry eye syndrome is performed in a hospital, it begins with the study of human complaints, anamnesis data collection.

Required and other methods of clinical examination, including:

  • Schirmer test for detecting the speed of formation of the lacrimal fluid;
  • Norn sample to reveal its evaporation rate;
  • laboratory research;
  • eye biomicroscopy evaluates the status of the cornea, tear film, conjunctiva;
  • Fluorescein instillation sample to determine the time the tear film rupture.

Before you buy at the pharmacy eye drops and to self-medicate, you must do everything that encourages ophthalmologist to identify the root cause of the characteristic of the disease.

Treatment

Therapeutic interventions in the treatment of "dry eye" syndrome are aimed at achieving the following objectives:

  1. Removal of the disease, leading to keratoconjunctival xerosis (correction glucose in diabetes, removal of hormonal disorders, treatment of rheumatoid inflammation, etc...);
  2. Increasing the stability of the tear film, which results in adequate moistening of the eyeball;
  3. Eliminating xerotic corneal and conjunctival changes;
  4. Prevention of complications from the cornea (opacity, ulceration).

Most of the patients with the syndrome of "dry eye" are treated as outpatients. Gospitaliziruya only for surgical treatment.

Eye drops

The most widely used drugs, known as "artificial tears". Additional eye drops and gels distinguish drugs with low, medium and high viscosity:

  • For the treatment of dry eye syndrome droplets begin with the use of drugs with a low viscosity (250 Lakrisifi rub., Natural tear (350-400 RUB) Defislez (40 rubles)). Before instillation droplets contact lenses must be removed.
  • In severe and pronounced violation slezoproduktsii prescribers average (Lakrisin).
  • And a high viscosity (gel Vidisik 200 rubles. Oftagel 180 rubles. Lakropos RUB 150).

Thus the gels with higher viscosity tend to pass into the liquid phase when making blinking movements. This ensures a sufficient hydration corneal patients with insufficient production and a change in the composition of the tear fluid.

Folk remedies for the treatment of

How to get rid of dry eye at home: for the treatment of the following can be used folk remedies:

  1. A decoction of chamomile for burrowing. 2 g of dried flowers is poured 200 ml of water and put on a slow fire. Boiled for 5 minutes, then allowed to cool. Pre-need to thoroughly drain the broth to prevent small particles from entering the eye. Dropping it with a sterile pipette, 1-2 drops of dry eye;
  2. Sea buckthorn oil. To make it a tablespoon of chopped buckthorn berries to mix with the same amount of olive oil and leave for a week in a sealed container. Filter and applied to the upper eyelids daily until improvement;
  3. Green tea - a cure for dry eye. Bags with brewed tea is applied to the eyes for 5 minutes. Previously they can be 5 minutes to put it in the freezer.
  4. Good stimulates the production of tear fluid camphor oil mixed with olive. Take 25 drops of each, mix. Moisten a cotton pad and apply to the eyelids - this is irritating and cause a tear.
  5. Cabbage leaf. It soothes, relieves itching and redness, reduces swelling. To achieve the effect is enough to put a piece on the eyelid, without pressing on the eye.

Gymnastics

To get rid of the redness of the eyes, must be every half hour to break away from work at the computer or reading a book and perform preventive exercises. The eyes should be closed and pupils could move several times clockwise and counterclockwise. Then, without opening his eyes, the pupils should be raised up and lowered down, forward left and right.

Following these simple manipulations, over closed eyes for a moment it is necessary to press the palm of your hand, so that they convey the warm hands. Then you need to open your eyes and look at the most distant point, and then look forward to finger own hands. This exercise should be repeated several times.

At the slightest feeling of eye fatigue it is recommended to blink rapidly for a short time or as much blink several times. You can just close your eyes and relax for fifteen seconds.

Prevention of dry eyes

Since dry eye syndrome rarely occurs due to congenital abnormalities, timely prevention of corneal drying is possible. Moreover, every measure to prevent dry eyes at the same time working to protect from a variety of infectious diseases and negative effects, while maintaining visual acuity patients.

Prevent drying of the cornea in a variety of situations, you can use moisturizing drops mimicking lacrimal fluid, but additional safeguards will be required in some cases. For example, when a strong wind and bright sun is recommended to wear safety glasses with UV filters, and bathing in public waters and pools - Use tight-fitting to the skin masks. Such measures make it possible to avoid direct exposure to bacteria and fungi in the cornea and prevent the development of diseases, for which dry eye is a symptom.

eye protection when working in the office and air-conditioned rooms has its own characteristics. The main problem here becomes low humidity, so it is worth considering the installation of the evaporator or even place the containers with water. When working at the computer need to blink more often, do regular workout and massage eye lids. Rewetting drops is important to use as soon as there is a discomfort, a burning sensation and discomfort.

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