Miscellaneous

Adenovirus infection in children: symptoms, treatment, diagnosis

Adenovirus infection - acute process, which is one of the ARI. Approximately 1/5 of all SARS accounted for adenovirus. It is accompanied by clinical symptoms such as fever, respiratory mucous average intoxication, inflammation of lymph, conjunctivitis.

Between influenza outbreaks and 30% of children suffer from viral infections is adenovirus. Up to 5 years of age, almost every child at least once faced with this disease. Babies are substantially independent adenovirus thanks to their transplacental immunity passed to him by his mother.

With 6 months the child becomes susceptible to infections.

How do you get?

The source of infection is people who can be infected by a vector. The huge risk of infection occurs during contact with the patient, which is interrupted at a deep period of treatment. During this period, in the nasopharynx there is a huge number of viral bacteria. In addition, the virus is found in the conjunctiva, blood and feces. In the first weeks infected pose a greater threat towards others. Also, patients can be carriers of the infection over the long term.

Like many similar disease of the type adenovirus moves via airborne paths. In addition, the virus can infect the stomach and esophagus. Therefore, this infection is related to intestinal and droplet groups. Ill mostly children from 6 months to 3 years. Toddlers first months of life, the disease does not meet almost. Quite frequently reported outbreak in the newly formed teams. After recovery, formed stable type-specific immunity (specific immunity virus type).

Infectious agent is a virus that belongs to the family of adenoviruses. Dvuhnitchatuyu virus contains DNA. Adenoviruses have as a group-and type-specific antigens, they are divided into three groups - A, B, C. Known 60 serotypes pathogenic to humans, especially children, are 36 serotypes.

Adenoviruses have a damaging effect, primarily in the nuclei of cells. Compared with other agents of ARI in children, adenoviruses are sufficiently resistant to environmental factors, resistant to high temperatures.

The symptoms of adenovirus infection

Clinical symptoms of adenovirus infection in children is largely dependent on the stage of the disease and places invading pathogens. As mentioned above, the penetration into the body of the child nutritional adenovirus occurs through mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.

This can manifest itself by the following features:

  • repeated vomiting;
  • sharp pains in the abdomen;
  • fever;
  • multiple watery stools.

Subsequently can join dehydration symptoms that occur in muscle weakness, decrease in urination and absence of skin turgor.

When airborne the penetration of adenovirus infection symptoms include:

  • sharp increase in body temperature to critical numbers of 38 - 39 ° C.
  • severe sore throat with hoarseness;
  • rhinitis with profuse compartment transparent mucous secretion;
  • difficulty in nasal breathing;
  • pain in all muscle groups;
  • weakness, lethargy, severe fatigue.

The characteristic feature of this form of infection - the continuing growth of hyperthermia during the first 5 days of the onset of the disease. Then, when correctly chosen treatment temperature graph gradually goes down.

If the treatment method is not correct, then quickly arise complications symptoms, which consist in spreading the respiratory tract infection. There is a strong cough, dyspnea, sputum production with a greenish tinge. With 3 days of illness regional lymph nodes are increased. They are dense, painful on palpation.

Diagnostics

Modern methods of examination of the patient to allow sufficiently accurate results, to make a diagnosis. Combined application of several methods increases the accuracy up to 98%.

For diagnostic use the immune electron microscopy (IEM), a reaction immunofluorescence (IFA), enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Also, analysis can be conducted on the reaction of the patient to the associated component (RAC). Another effective method of research laboratory - determining the braking reaction haemagglutination smear examination from the mucosa (tissue microflora) and bacteriological sowing scraping.

The differential diagnosis of a sick child with the various forms of the disease should be carried out with infectious mononucleosis detection of influenza or other respiratory viral infections. The course of treatment is appointed immediately after receiving the test results. You might also need additional consultation ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist.

possible complications

Virus infection in young children prone to generalization. Adenovirus enters the airways and causes pneumonia. Otherwise, it is called a hemorrhagic, because the destruction of the vessels in the alveoli accumulated blood, causing breathing difficulties. When adenoviral infections in children caused by type №8, there is corneal eye disease that can cause the formation of cataract.

During disease children under one year often suffer from intestinal disorders. If the localization of the adenovirus in the mesenteric lymph nodes mezoenterit develops, symptoms of which are similar to acute appendicitis.

Treatment of adenoviral infections in children

According to Dr. Komarovsky, in many ways the treatment of adenoviral infections in children depends on the general condition of the child and the symptoms of the disease. In most cases, patients are not hospitalized, with the exception of infants and young children, threatened with dehydration, as they can not drink enough during illness water volume. It is also necessary to put in the hospital little children with signs of pneumonia.

Specific antiviral therapy is not developed against the disease. In practice, at home apply symptomatic agents that facilitate the state of the sick child.

Non-pharmacological treatment is as follows:

  1. Bed rest. It is desirable, even after the normalization of temperature, hold your baby in bed another day 3.
  2. humidification. When the disease is nasal mucosa becomes inflamed the crumbs. Dry air causes irritation and leads to a worsening of the painful symptoms. Therefore, the room should be periodically include a humidifier. You can sprinkle spray curtains. Or to put in your child's room a basin of water.
  3. Fencing on the activity, physical labor. It is recommended not to load the body of a child, not only during the illness, but also 1 week after recovery.
  4. Power remains. The appetite of the baby is getting worse. If a child refuses to eat, do not feed him forcibly. This can lead to vomiting. As a result, the child's body even more depleted.
  5. Cleaning of premises. The room should be cleaned constantly. The room must be free of dust. To reduce the severity of symptoms on a regular basis Ventilate the room.
  6. Protect from bright light. The infection affects the eyes. It is desirable for the duration of the disease in a child's room to push the curtains. Furthermore, it should eliminate fatigue small patient's eye. A child should not independently read, watch TV for a long time. Protect it from computer games.
  7. Warm drink. The disadvantage can be compensated by eating copious drinking. Child benefit: jelly, tea, milk, juice. These drinks can help reduce the body's level of intoxication.

In compliance with all the recommendations of the child's recovery goes much faster, and the disease is rarely associated with the development of complications.

drug therapy

According to the testimony, and clinical symptoms are used antipyretics, expectorant, desensitizing agents.

A brief list of drugs:

  • Paracetamol, Nurofen (antipyretic, administered at a temperature above 38.5 degrees);
  • Aqua Maris Physiomer, Dolphin (restoring airway mucosa);
  • Nazivin, vibration (vasoconstrictor nose drops);
  • Mucosolvan (for inhalation via a nebulizer);
  • Kipferon, Viferon, IRC-19, Derinat (immunotropic preparations);
  • ACC bromhexine, Mukaltin, "Dr. cough", "Ambroxol children" (phlegm, expectorant);
  • Furatsilina solution, potassium permanganate solution, broth chamomile, Oxolinic ointment Oftalmoferon, 2% boric acid, deoxyribonuclease solution (in lesions of the eye).

Before using the products it is imperative to call the pediatrician at the house for inspection, as the self-treatment of adenoviral infection can lead to negative consequences.

To which the doctor ask?

This infection is mild, pediatrician treats. In the case of severe illness or complications of the child is admitted to the hospital infection. There he can explore the profile specialists: ENT, ophthalmology, gastroenterology, neurology, with appropriate evidence.

prevention

Basic preventive measures aimed at increasing the overall resistance of the child's body and the isolation of sick children from organized kollektiva.3748738

  1. Chlorination of water in swimming pools.
  2. Wellness treatments - hardening, good nutrition;
  3. Prevention of drafts and hypothermia, according to the weather clothes.
  4. Receiving plant adaptogens - tincture of Siberian Ginseng, Schisandra, Echinacea;
  5. The periodic reception of vitamin and mineral supplements, and in autumn and winter - immunomodulating and immunostimulating agents.
  6. Reducing the contacts in the epidemic season, the exclusion of visiting crowded.

After isolation of the sick child of a group of children in the room is carried out final disinfection. Obstacles treated bleach - chloramine or sulfohlorantin. Emergency prophylaxis is carried out by assigning a contact locus children immunostimulants.

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