Symptoms of the disease in women are different from the symptoms that occur in men. However, they can be very different. Often the disease occurs without any symptoms, which leads to its complications. About chlamydia is essential to know the women who care about their health.
What it is?
Chlamydia - a disease of an infectious nature, caused by intracellular parasites - chlamydia, affecting organs of the urogenital system.
Causes and risk factors
Pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women are intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. These bacteria can be stored for a long time in the human body, without causing clinical symptoms, in the case of weakening the body's defenses begin chlamydia enhanced livelihoods and growth, causing the symptoms of chlamydia in women. The most common way of transmission is sexual chlamydia - like in the traditional as well as in non-traditional forms of unprotected intercourse.
In addition, chlamydia transmission may occur in utero or during birth from mother to child during the passage of the fetus through the birth canal. Observed contact-household path of transmission of the disease - through contaminated secretions of infected hands, personal hygiene items, bedding and so on. Such infection is rare, because chlamydia is the body die quickly. There have been cases of chlamydia transmission during blood transfusions.
The first signs
Chlamydia infection often does not give symptoms, but in some cases there are certain complaints.
The first signs of chlamydial infection in women:
- The feeling of slight pain and discomfort when urinating;
- Sensation moisture genitals;
- burning feeling in the vulva and itching in the urethra;
- Muco-purulent vaginal discharge. When viewed allocation appear with pressure on the affected area;
- Drawing pain in the lower abdomen;
- The defect in form in the cervical area of erosion;
- Heaviness and pain in the lumbar spine;
- Menstrual disorders;
- General weakness and fever.
It can also occur chlamydial conjunctivitis, with the involvement of the eye in the pathological process.
Symptoms of chlamydia in women
This disease can be asymptomatic for many years, symptoms of the disease are found in only 30-40% of women. However, hidden during the process is not safe: chlamydia, even occurs without any symptoms, can cause many complications up to infertility. The incubation period of the disease is 2-4 weeks, so the appearance of any symptoms are often not associated with sexual intercourse that occurred in the past.
Depending on the affected organ infection, there are various diseases and manifest overt symptoms.
- Urethritis - Chlamydia defeat of the urethra with the development of a burning sensation and pain in relieving small needs.
- bartholinitis - inflammation of the Bartholin gland, which is located on both sides of the entrance to the vagina. It causes pain, swelling and redness of the affected side, an increase in body temperature.
- Erosion and inflammation of the cervix (endocervite), accompanied by a drawing pains in the abdomen, the advent of muco-purulent discharge, often spotting after intercourse.
- salpingitis and adnexitis - inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries (often combined pathology). Pain in the right or left side, menstrual disorders, fever - symptoms can be suspected chlamydia appendages in women.
- endometritis (Inflammation of the inner layer of the uterus) - typical symptoms: high fever, uterine bleeding, muco-purulent discharge, severe pain behind the pubis.
- Chlamydia throat - occurs when the infection during oral sex. Characterized by sore throat, pain when swallowing.
- Pelvioperitonit - the defeat of the peritoneum in the pelvic area. This gives rise to a fairly sharp abdominal pain, constipation, bloating, tension of the abdominal wall.
- Arthritis (Reiter's syndrome) - a chronic chlamydia in women can lead to autoimmune inflammation of the joints.
- Chlamydial proctitis - an inflammation of rectal mucosa (after unprotected anal intercourse) with the appearance of pain, muco-purulent discharge from the anus.
- Pneumonia - the first signs of chlamydial inflammation characterized by cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever.
- Conjunctivitis - eye disease with the development of tearing, redness, burning sensation. Develops at introduction of infection into the eyes with dirty hands, when sharing towels.
In itself, the infection can occur hidden - the first symptoms occur with infection diseases provoked!
Techniques that help diagnose chlamydia:
- Bacteriological sowings microflora. Determined by the presence of bacteria. It can be used for blood, urine, sex selection.
- PCR. Polymerase chain reaction for a few hours will help to establish the causative agent of the disease even in one small fragment, if any, was in the starting material.
- REEF. Analysis of the reaction by immunofluorescence staining reagent special material. A fluorescence microscope in the presence of chlamydia will highlight them.
- ELISA. Using blood immunosorbent assay determines antibodies to chlamydia. It specifies in what stage the disease.
- Smear. A small amount of discharge from the urethra, the vagina is treated with a microscope.
Laboratory studies are important for the correct diagnosis, since the existing chlamydia: unexpressed symptoms in women are very common, occurring in a latent form. A blood test, a swab from the vagina pass several stages - at the beginning of the treatment and the control at the end.
What is chlamydia: photo
The photo below shows how the disease manifests itself in women.
What happens if not treated?
Complications of chlamydia in women:
- Adhesion process leads to chronic pain in the pelvic area.
- Salpingo complicated pelvioperitonitom - inflammation of the pelvic peritoneum. The acute phase of the disease had occurred with high body temperature and severe pains in the lower abdomen. When going in the chronic phase of disease severity of clinical symptoms of the flow is smoothed.
- When the spread of infection in the upper region of the abdomen there are severe pain in the right upper quadrant, indicating liver disease capsules (Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome). Development of a strong adhesion process leads to chronic pain in the upper abdomen.
- Chronic inflammatory diseases of the cervix, pelvic, abdominal organs - threatening complications of chlamydia in women. Multiple adhesions are the cause of the pathology of pregnancy and infection of the fetus or during pregnancy or during birth.
- Some of chlamydia found a heat shock protein that can cause autoimmune reactions. Such patients develop Reiter's syndrome, inflammation of the vagina in which reactive arthritis combined with one or more joints and inflammation of the mucosa of the eye (conjunctivitis). Syndrome is 20 times more common in men.
Most often chlamydia in women often occurs with a smoothed symptomatic and takes a chronic form with a minimum number of external manifestations, have a significant effect on the reproductive system person.
Do I need to treat sexual partner (husband, boyfriend)?
If you have been found chlamydia, be sure to tell their sexual partner. He needs to address to the urologist and get tested for sexually transmitted infections.
Even if your partner has chlamydia is detected, it will still need to undergo a course of treatment.
Treatment of chlamydia in women
The problem of comprehensive treatment of chlamydial infection in women should be solved taking into account the clinical picture of the patient. Ready-made algorithms, general schemes treatment of chlamydia in women is not because in each case it is necessary to take into account the state of immunity, concomitant diseases, intestinal flora.
Any bacterial infection, chlamydia and including, requires the use of antibiotics. Since the infectious agent is a parasite intracellularly, and the choice of antibiotics in the treatment of chlamydia It should be limited to only those antimicrobial agents that are able to destroy the infection in cell:
- Tetracyclines: doxycycline - JUnidoks soljutab, Doriks, Vibramitsin, Vibra-tabs.
- Macrolides: Azithromycin (Sumamed, Zithromax, Hemomitsin) Josamycin (Vilprafen) and clarithromycin (Klarbakt, Uno Fromilid)
- Fluoroquinolones: Ofloxacin (FLOXIN, Zanotsin, tarivid, Ofloksin), Levofloxacin (Tavanik, Glewe, Levostar, Fleksid), Ciprofloxacin (TSifran, tsiprobay, tsiprinol, Cipro-bid), spiramycin (Rovamycinum), norfloxacin (nolitsin, norbaktin), lomefloxacin (Lomfloks), sparfloxacin (Sparflo).
Must take into account the presence of opportunistic infections, sexually transmitted infections to antibiotic selection was the most effective in the presence of mixed infection.
There are European guidelines treatment of chlamydia, according to which appointed:
- Azithromycin 500 mg Table 2. mono- or Doxycycline 0.1 twice a day for 7 days.
- With such a regimen efficiency reaches 97%.
- Erythromycin 500 mg four times a day cherehz 6 hours, 7 days
- Ofloxacin 300 mg twice a day every 12 hours for 7 days
- Roxithromycin 150 mg twice a day every 12 hours for 7 days
- Spiramycin 3 million units every 8 hours for 7 days
- Erythromycin, 500 mg every 6 hours 4 times a day, 7 days
- Josamycin 750 mg 3 times a day every 8 hours for 7 days
- Spiramycin million units 3 through 8 hours 3 times a day for 7 days.
All information about drugs and treatment regimens intended for informational purposes only. chlamydia treatment is carried out only by qualified personnel on the basis of test results, medical history of the patient, in dynamics, taking into account the criteria of cure.
Are an important component of effective therapy and chlamydia are used in acute and chronic chlamydial infections. These include: "Metiluratsil", "Timalin", "Takvitin", "Lysozyme", "Viferon", "Polioksidoniy", "TSikloferon".
Recently, for the treatment of female chlamydia is very widely used drug "Polioksidoniy" especially if there is an atypical form of urogenital chlamydiosis. "Polioksidony" enhances antibody production and reduces side effects other drugs reduces the recovery period, increases resistance of the organism to other infections.
But it is worth remembering that strictly forbidden self-administration of any drugs, especially immunomodulators.
Schemes of treatment of chlamydia in women
Effective treatment of infections in women is based on taking drugs that kill or inhibit the growth of chlamydia organisms. The doctor gives an overall assessment of the patient's body, brings concomitant diseases to assign the correct therapy.
Schemes of treatment of chlamydia in women:
- Sluggish chlamydia. It carried out an immunotherapy, systemic enzyme therapy in the first two weeks. Then the doctor prescribes antibiotics, multivitamins, anti-fungal agents. To restore and support the body's gynecologist appoints fizprotsedury, local treatment, probiotics, gepatoprotektory. The treatment regimen began with antibiotics identical circuit acute chlamydia.
- Acute chlamydia. Prescribers: the antibiotic doxycycline (3 weeks on 100 mg 2 times a day), immunomodulator for physician selection, multivitamins. After 7 days, systemic enzyme therapy is conducted. If fungal infections are present, apply "Fluconazole" drugs, "Nystatin". In combination with therapeutic agents are issued probiotics gepatoprotektory appointed fizprotsedury, local treatment.
- Chronic chlamydia. Within two weeks the short-wave therapy, is appointed "Amiksin" for 30 days (one day). Conducted systemic enzyme therapy (2 weeks). After 10 days of treatment the infection antibiotics are assigned (number identical to the number of the drug in the therapy of acute disease), multivitamins. Conducted physical therapy, used gepatoprotektory. Treatment of chronic chlamydial infection in women can be accompanied by reception hyaluronidase preparations (e.g., "Longidaza" 1 suppository once in 10 days).
Effective prevention must know and observe the following rules:
- Exclude promiscuity.
- Mandatory use of condoms in all kinds of sex.
- Remember that there are other ways besides chlamydia genital infection, and to be cautious in this regard.
- Remember that even one unprotected sex leads to infection with chlamydia.
- Obligatory inspection after unprotected sexual intercourse for the presence of sexually transmitted infections.
- If diagnosed with chlamydia, you must stop the sex, to inform sexual partners, to tighten personal hygiene, to take all measures against family members living nearby to protect them from contracting domestic by.
Chlamydia is the basis of the above, it is easier to prevent than to treat.