There is evidence that this disease affects about 10% of women. Recently polyposis much younger and more common in young girls up to teenagers and nulliparous, not sexually active young women. What is this disease, how it manifests itself, what are its causes and symptoms?
What it is?
uterine polyp - a growth of the mucous membrane, which has a spherical shape and is attached to the tissue with the legs or broad basis. The disease is considered benign, but in some cases it can cause the development of cancer. The problem occurs in women of any age.
There are cases when a polyp was diagnosed in a 11-year-old girl. Often these growths observed in women in the waning fertility after 40 - 50 years.
Reasons for the formation of polyps
Main causes growths in the basal layer of the endometrium are to inflammatory changes and hormonal disorders.
Consider the details:
- Hormonal disorders. Upset hormone production, namely increased secretion of estrogen and ovarian dysfunction lead to focal hyperplasia inner layer of the uterus, the endometrium thickens and therefore arise polyps. Since these disorders can lead not only to polyposis, in women with ovarian dysfunction and estrogen are mastitis, Uterine fibroids, polycystic ovaries, Glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium.
- Mechanical injury. Any gynecological manipulations, unsuccessful surgical abortion, frequent abortions, diagnostic curettage, prolonged use of an intrauterine device, and so forth. also refer to the risk of developing benign tumors.
- Inflammation of the female genital organs. Any chronic diseases of the female reproductive system such as adnexitis(Salpingo, oophoritis, Endometritis, and other sexually transmitted infections, particularly chronic diseases, are also causes of polyps in the uterus.
- Other systemic diseases. Women with symptoms of diabetes, obesity, hypertension, Immune disorders, mental disorders, diseases of the thyroid gland also belong to the group with the risk of polyps.
According to the histological features of uterine polyps are divided into the following varieties:
- Adenomatous - in their composition are present atypical changes in cell structure. Similar formations are prone to malignancy;
- Iron-fibrotic - consist of a mixture of glandular and connective tissue cell structure;
- Glandular - zhelezistotkannyh consist of cellular structures. These polyps usually occur in relatively young patients. They may develop in the form of cysts with liquid inside. The most common cause of such acts polyposis endometrial hyperplasia;
- Fibrotic - such formations are formed from connective tissue cells, possess a dense structure, arise mainly from women over 40 in premenopausal or menopausal period when the female body is a mass hormonal change;
- Placental - such polypous education are formed in women after childbirth if the uterine cavity were placental cells that later develop polyps.
When a polyp is small or it is a single, the symptoms tend to be completely absent. A woman learns that she has a tumor only in the doctor's office during a routine visit. Clinical signs of the disease are manifested only when inflammation develops or polyp infected as a result of the injury.
In this case, may begin to disturb the following symptoms:
- Increasing the number of cables.
- blood in excretions, non-menstrual cycle. Such a symptom is observed in trauma sprawl.
- The occurrence of pain, pulling character. They tend to grow at the time of the next menstruation. The most common pain occur in the presence of large polyps. They can also disturb a woman during intimacy.
In addition, there is a relationship between polyps and infertility, which is found in women of childbearing age. This happens both because of hormonal failure, and because of the overlapping polyp entrance to the cervical canal. Formation leads to failure of established menstrual cycle. Menses become longer and more abundant due to increase in estrogen levels and uterine mucosal thickening layer.
Before the appointment of diagnostic measures gynecologist collects the patient's medical history, gynecological and reproductive. After that the vaginal examination, performed histology materials after dilatation and curettage, hysteroscopy, uterography, carried ultrasound.
- Gynecological examination is carried out to detect cervical polyps, inspection can not be performed with such a procedure the uterus. However, if it is determined cervical polyp, with high probability, and neoplasms present in the uterine cavity.
- Hysteroscopy - most informative study because inspection of the uterine cavity is performed with a special instrument, equipped with a video camera. This apparatus is introduced through the cervical canal. This procedure allows you to determine the size, number and location of polyps. These polyps can have a different color - from dark purple to yellow - and be different in shape. The procedure also involves the removal of polyps or solitary fence material for morphological studies to make an accurate diagnosis.
- Ultrasound is conducted specifically with a particular care to the expansion of the uterus. In the presence of polyps seen clear mucosal proliferation homogeneous structure, endometrium thickens.
- Uterography - this X-ray examination of the uterus using a contrast agent. In the course of such an investigation can determine the rough outlines of the uterus, which correspond polyps.
It is also possible to carry out histological examination diagnostic curettage.
The dangerous polyps?
Hearing such a diagnosis, women wonder: Is this dangerous? The answer is - yes. Polyps can cause various complications and problems.
If the disease is detected in the period of gestation, it can cause the development of cervical incompetence, abortion, improper attachment of the placenta. In addition, uterine polyps can provoke irregular menstruation, uterine bleeding, infertility.
If the disease let things slide and not be seen by a doctor, the polyps benign nature may eventually develop into a cancer. It usually relates to adenomatous polyps, which in its composition initially contain modified cells.
How to treat polyps in the uterus?
Patients prescribed reception antiinflammatory and hormonal agents. As a rule, the disease occurs on the background of high levels of estrogen in the blood, so oral contraceptives prescribed to correct hormonal balance. polyps Treatment with drugs depends on the structure and size of tumors.
To solve the problem using the following medicines:
Last in pure form for the treatment of pathological processes is not used because it can lead to many complications. In the appointment of treatment the doctor must take into account the peculiarities of the patient's menstrual cycle, its age and possible accompanying diseases of other systems.
Removal of polyps in the uterus
As a rule, an operation to remove polyps performed hysteroscopic or laparoskomicheskim ways.
- Gisterologichesky method can be considered low-impact procedure for the treatment of uterine polyps, which appointed in cases when it is required to accurately determine the place of location of polyps and to hold them removal. Duration of treatment does not exceed 20 minutes. It can be performed under local or general anesthesia. A woman can go home already the day of surgery. Advantages of the method: security, there is no pain, the camera controls the operation course, does not remain postoperative sutures.
- The laparoscopic method allows to carry out the operation through small incisions that the doctor makes in the stomach (at the bottom). The hospital will have to spend about a week, and the work can be back in 2 weeks. This method is effective at high risk of uterus cancer. Advantages: no scars, no postoperative pain and complications, a small recovery period
For fast and reliable disposal of polyps of the above surgical methods are used. Thanks to modern equipment and technology, the operation is now going through with the least trauma to the female body.
What you should know about the consequences after surgery to remove polyps in the uterus? Effects after removing the polyp from the body depends largely on the type of intervention.
However, it is necessary to go to the doctor if:
- It began to bleed;
- Spin have an unpleasant odor, dark;
- The body temperature begins to rise;
- There are severe abdominal pain.
If it was done scraping, a woman may have:
- Perforation of the uterus due to their poor expansion or their increased friability. If perforated a large area, it is necessary to take in.
- inflammation of the uterus, which starts on the background undertreated infection or in violation of sanitary norms during surgery.
- Hematometra, which is accompanied by severe pain and lack of bleeding after surgery.
Prevention of polyps in the uterus associated with dysfunction of the ovaries to produce more estrogen. Therefore, preventive measures include:
- exclude promiscuity;
- not to consume meat products that contain hormones;
- regular visits to the gynecologist to rule out pathology and the proper selection of contraceptives;
- active exercise, physical inactivity combating exclude blood stagnation in the pelvis;
- avoid sudden hypothermia.
Always be attentive to your body and at the slightest failure to consult with a specialist in time to avoid unpleasant complications.
With timely and adequate treatment, the prognosis is favorable.
The cancer can regenerate adenomatous polyps, diameter more than 10 mm, which requires greater attention. Increased adverse risks of uncontrolled hormonal drugs, including COCs. The risk increases with the use of the IUD, including the intrauterine device.
In some cases, relapse of disease. This increases the risk of malignancy of polyps to 6% of all cases of relapse. After removal of the polyp must be mandatory hormone therapy to control the attending gynecologist.
During pregnancy, the presence of polyps in the uterus requires more attention obstetrician-gynecologist to rule out the development of fetal hypoxia and PONRP.