Deviations and changes in its structure will point to emerging problems. Timely information about the possible pathology will help in time to remove them.
This is especially true for a child's body, which is growing and needs in a timely protection. An important mission in this process is assigned to white blood cells - blood corpuscles. Purpose of the white cell - to provide protection against the body of pathogenic bacteria and foreign protein. They have developed a special sensitivity of white blood cells.
What it is?
Leukocytes - white blood cells, the main task of which is to maintain the immune system and protect the body from foreign agents. Unlike erythrocytes (red cells), their content is about 1000 times less, therefore, blood itself is red in color. There so leukocyte types that perform particular functions and are contained in a different percentage.
When the body gets foreign cells, white blood cells rush to it, and completely block. There are several subtypes of white blood cells:
- Basophils contain heparin and histamine. This helps them to be a catalyst for the process of lipolysis of fat in the blood. Histamine exerts anti-inflammatory effects and stimulates phagocytosis. Basophils perform the function of preventing the formation of thrombi.
- Neutrophils - a cell "suicide". They absorb and cleave the harmful cells. At the same time, neutrophil killed himself. The accumulation of dead neutrophils called pus. Their main function - the fight against bacteria and toxic substances. May exist in tissues with a weak oxygen access. Active against virus attacks.
- Lymphocytes - the largest group of white blood cells. They constitute about 40% of the total. Lymphocytes are struggling with protein antigens and bacteria. Some of them are synthesized by a group of immunoglobulins.
- Monocytes - a macrophages, which are the main catalysts for phagocytosis. These cells are designed to combat parasitic attacks. Actively block tumor tissue and stimulate the normal level of cell regeneration.
- Eosinophils perform antibacterial function. They penetrate through the shell of infectious cells and destroy its inside, via allocated enzymes. Active process of accumulation of eosinophils and is in the focus of an allergic reaction.
All human blood contains white blood cells 4000-9000 ul. Their number is constantly fluctuating. Red blood cells are more constant. They have a fixed level.
Normal blood levels of white blood cells in children
Norma leukocytes in the blood of children more than their normal content in the blood of adults. At the heart of this lies the physiological characteristics of the body of the child, whose immune system is not perfect yet, so the need for greater protection of his body from possible infection.
The table below - in the blood of white blood cells in children, depending on age:
|Age||Normal indicator / l|
The normal white blood cell count in children depends on their age. White blood cell count in children under one year is much higher than adult figures. As they get older the child's white blood cell count decreases. Age dynamics of blood leukocytes is reflected in the table.
The deviation from the norm of white blood cells: causes
Condition in which the fixed deviation of the number of white cells from the optimum level is called:
- leukocytosis - when the leukocytes exceed the norm.
- leukopenia - reduced content of different leukocytes.
Both conditions often act undesirable consequence of disease processes occurring in the body of the baby.
What is the risk of leukopenia?
Many people have no idea the danger of a sharp decline in white blood cell count. They believe that this is happening after suffering their disease. Maybe so, since many medical conditions can cause leukopenia. However, sometimes vice versa - many diseases may be caused by leukopenia. This is due to the body's defenses snizhaeniya when open access various bacterial and viral infections.
In people with altered leukocyte formula and reducing the number of leukocytes in the blood, the risk of cancer, viral hepatitis, AIDS and other infections increases twice. For children, this syndrome is dangerous because if you do not examine and treat a child, you can skip severe blood disease - leukemia, since his debut may manifest as leukocytosis, and leukopenia.
Drug therapy (especially cytostatics) is also able to cause neutropenia in children.
What do the reduced white blood cells in the blood of a child?
Leukopenia, although widespread and fairly well-known, but still there is much rarer than leukocytosis. The etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome are extensive. The most common factors leading to a decrease in white blood cell levels:
Reduced white blood cell count in children is due to inhibition of their formation in hematopoietic organs, which is caused by the following reasons:
- Autoimmune problems.
- Anaphylactic shock.
- Metastasis of various tumors in bone marrow tissue.
- Aleukemic embodiment leukemia.
- Enlargement of the spleen, which is accompanied by the development of hypersplenism.
- Any generalized infectious condition - miliary tuberculosis, septicemia and so on.
- Some species of bacterial diseases (paratyphoid fever, brucellosis), Protozoan (malaria) And rickettsial (typhus) infections.
- bone marrow, accompanied by his hypo aplasia. In this case, decrease of leukocytes level will be accompanied by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and platelets.
- Various viral diseases (rubella, Influenza, HIV infection, viral hepatitis and so forth.), which have inhibitory effect on the formation and specialization of leukocytes.
- As a result of impact on the body of some drugs (sulfonamides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antibiotics, tireostatiki etc.).
To answer the question what is the real cause of the low white blood cells, it is necessary to pass a full inspection. The fact that the rate of white blood cells depends on a variety of reasons. The most trivial of them - ambient temperature, diet.
By itself, the low level of white blood cells is an asymptomatic condition, but the drop in the number of blood cells affect the immunity of the child, so parents will celebrate more frequent viral infection.
If decreased white blood cells is one of the symptoms of the disease, the child may have a fever, fever, tachycardia, chills, dizziness, weakness, headache, enlarged lymph nodes and other symptoms.
How to treat?
First of all, in order to raise the level of white blood cells, it is necessary to clarify the exact cause of their decline. may often require additional methods of examination. When establishing accurate diagnosis designate causal treatment, which aims at eliminating itself causes pathology, for example:
- If these are signs of beriberi group B prescribe drugs containing these substances, and adjust the diet.
- If leukopenia caused by diabetes, the drugs used to maintain blood sugar levels and normalization of the pancreas.
- HIV infection is prescribed a lifelong ARV therapy. Viral load (number of viral copies), falls, and the immune system is restored independently.
Of the total of drugs used immunostimulants, immunomodulators (reduced work immunity) and immunomodulators (remove the damaged parts of the immune system):
- Recombinant - interferons alpha, beta, gamma,
- colony stimulating factors - Filgrastim, Lenograstim;
- fungal and microbial - Bronhomunal, IRS-19, Likopid;
- animal - Myelopid, Timogen, Timalin;
- interleukins -mezhleykotsitarnye mediators (Roncoleukin);
- other active substances - vitamins, adaptogens (Siberian ginseng, ginseng and the like);
- vegetable - products containing echinacea (Immunal, Ihinatsin, Ihingin).
In addition, it is your responsibility to help the body to increase white blood cells, this should be balanced eating: eat more fruits and vegetables, protein foods, to reduce fat intake. The diet should be present meat, bean, dairy products, cereals, nuts. it is not recommended to eat oily fish and meat. During cooking do not use spices and seasonings.
In addition to medical treatment, increase of leukocytes can be at home. Folk recipes with leukopenia be applied as an adjuvant therapy, but not primary.
To which the doctor ask?
In the case where the results of the analysis showed a reduced level of white blood cells, a pediatrician appoint repeated the study. If the second analysis showed abnormalities, children's doctor prescribes a full examination of the child's pre-history collecting the words of parents. You may need consultation genetics and hematologist to rule out the risk of leukopenia in the case of autoimmune and genetic disorders.
Treatment depends entirely on what provoked the pathology. If this disease - it must be removed if nonspecific factors (prolonged fasting, psycho-emotional disorders) - increasing the level of white blood cells is totally dependent on their elimination.