Due to the nature of the penis anatomy inflammation of the urethra in men has a characteristic clinical picture of the disease and its treatment. Complications urethritis take local character, affecting all parts of the reproductive and urinary systems.
In this article, we will discuss the causes, types, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of urethritis the example of the male urinary system.
What it is?
Urethritis - an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urethra or the urethra. Men's urethra of female is different from - it is several times longer and has a S-shaped bend, it is the cause of significant differences in flow urethritis in men and women.
Depending on the cause of urethritis in men are divided into infectious and non-infectious and infectious, in turn, gonococcal and non-gonococcal.
Noninfectious urethritis in men is the following species:
- stagnant (congestive).
NGU is divided into types depending on the pathogen:
- bacterial (caused by pathogenic microflora);
- mycotic (candidiasis, fungal);
For the duration of the disease was isolated fresh (acute, subacute and torpid) and chronic urethritis.
Depending on the localization of the pathological process:
- Front urethritis - anterior urethra, ie.. located closer to the outlet on the glans penis;
- rear - in the posterior part of the urethra, ie.. localized closer to the bladder.
Fresh (acute) urethritis occurs in three stages:
- incubation period - the time from infection to the onset, duration of 1-2 days to 2 weeks.
- period of severe symptoms.
- during convalescence - full recovery under favorable conditions (treatment) or chronic process, ie.. of progression in chronic disadvantaged embodiment.
The clinical picture of chronic urethritis is also divided into three alternating periods:
- aggravation (pronounced symptoms).
- remission (asymptomatic, but the inflammatory process is not allowed, it proceeds in an implicit form).
- unstable remission (Meager clinical manifestations).
The incubation period for bacterial urethritis lasts from 5-7 days to two months. Approximately half of the cases urethritis in men has latent (hidden) for when the symptoms or non-existent or are so unspoken character that does not draw attention to themselves patient. The first signs of the disease can be expressed in this case appear in a few months (in some cases - years) from the moment of infection.
We list the main symptoms of urethritis in men:
- Itching, which is observed in the genital area.
- Hyperemia. There has been some opening of the urethra from the outside.
- Painful sensations, burning sensation in urethra passage. They usually occur during urination or after emptying the bladder.
- Allocation. Very often they come in the morning. Characterized by an unpleasant odor, mucus or purulent character. Most often, gray or white, after drying, become yellow.
- Swelling of the penis. It is accompanied by significant morbidity when touched. As a result, there may be pain during sexual acts.
The pathological condition may be accompanied by sticking urethra. If a man is sick urethritis, then there may be bleeding in the urine or semen, painful erections.
Usually when urethritis in men there is no weakness and fatigue. In nature bacterial pathology possible fever. The inflammatory process can extend to the prostate gland. The above symptoms often occur at different times.
The symptoms of urethritis, depending on the pathogen
The table below - the most typical symptoms of different types of urethritis.
|gonorrheal||Acute pain during urination, presence of gray - yellow discharge from the urethra. The urine becomes cloudy because of the contained pus. In urine, semen - blood.|
|tubercular||In most cases, it occurs against a background of renal tuberculosis or genital tuberculosis. It occurs penetration mycotic tuberculosis bacteria in the urethra with urine current. Proceeds malosimptomno (sweating, fatigue, low-grade fever).|
|mycoplasma||Rarely occurs alone. Mycoplasmal urethritis is usually combined with trichomonas or gonorrhea.|
|gardnerelleznoy||The incubation period from one week to several months. In most cases, present as a component of mixed urethritis.|
|Viral||Symptoms are mild. The disease is sluggish. It may be accompanied by inflammation of the joints and conjunctivitis.|
|Chlamydia||Cramps and burning are absent, minor release. In most cases, it proceeds according to chronic type.|
|Trichomonas||The predominant symptom - an almost constant itching in the head. Characterized by difficulty urinating and the presence of grayish-white discharge from the urethra.|
|ureaplazmennogo||Most often accompanies trichomoniasis or gonorrheal urethritis. The incubation period is about 1 month. There are green or white discharge, there is a burning and itching when urinating. Exacerbation of symptoms occurs against sex or alcohol intake.|
|Bacterial||Symptoms erased. The incubation period can be up to several months. Purulent discharge from the urethra.|
|mycotic||The incubation period is about 20 days, there is a burning sensation and itching. Spin watery mucus or sometimes pale-pink color.|
|Traumatic||Symptomatology depends on the degree of traumatic exposure. Symptoms - pain, burning during urination.|
|congestive||Classic symptoms are often completely absent. Manifested different types of sexual dysfunction.|
|Allergic||Distinctive feature - allergic swelling. Accompanied by itching and burning.|
Urethritis - a serious illness, do not hesitate to contact your doctor to the problem as untimely or incorrect treatment can lead to serious complications.
Possible spread of infection to other organs, patients may develop cystitis, pyelonephritis, Inflammation can affect the testicles and their appendages. The most severe complication of urethritis in men - is prostatitisWhich could lead to incurable infertility and sexual dysfunction.
When signs of the disease should seek assistance from the specialist. The urologist will assign a thorough examination. Indeed, symptoms and treatment of urethritis in men depends on the type of disease and the factors that provoked it.
In general diagnosis consists of the following survey methods:
- Ultrasound of the genitourinary system;
- studies precipitates by polymerase chain reaction;
- nechyporenko urine analysis;
- Public and trehstakannaya urinalysis;
- study of smear taken from the urethra;
- General blood analysis;
- of ureteroscopy;
- urine culture on a nutrient medium.
It is these kinds of surveys provide an opportunity to determine the nature of the disease and subsequently assign the correct treatment.
Treatment of urethritis in men
Effective treatment for urethritis help to avoid possible complications. It is carried out using various drugs - antibiotics, antiseptics, antioxidants, immunotherapy agents, vitamins, immunomodulators, agents for topical application. Drug dosage prescribed by the physician. It is important to observe proper diet, give up alcohol from cigarettes.
Antibacterials - the mainstay of therapy for urethritis of any etiology. The spectrum of antibiotics used in the treatment of this disease is quite broad. Used drugs cephalosporin, tetracycline, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, rarely used drugs penicillin. Candida urethritis requires the appointment of antifungal drugs. In many cases, appointed just two antibacterial drug.
Preparations for the treatment of specific urethritis:
When nonspecific urethritis shows preparations:
Candida urethritis requires the appointment of such medicines:
Urethritis in men caused by gonorrhea, is treated with the following medications:
The course of treatment lasts on average 10 days. It is necessary to adhere strictly to the reception circuit antimicrobials. Stop treatment on their own can not, it can lead to the transition of the disease into a chronic form.
Urethritis, chlamydia-induced, treated by assigning doxycycline, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones. Upon detection of mycoplasma in a smear man appointed representatives from the group of tetracyclines. Herpesvirus urethritis involves treatment with acyclovir, ribavirin, ganciclovir, penciclovir.
Prevention of urethritis
Access to prevention of urethritis and its complications:
- Avoid excessive physical exertion, stress;
- Regular visits to the urologist for a routine inspection;
- Drinking regime;
- Refusal of unprotected and casual sex;
- Regular emptying of the bladder;
- Avoiding alcohol consumption;
- Early treatment of emerging diseases and genital fungal infections;
- Compliance with the rules of hygiene, the use of mainly cotton underwear, using only personal hygiene products, underwear, towels.
To urethritis is not passed in the chronic form caused no complications, you should promptly treat its manifestations under the guidance of the urologist. Adequate diagnosis, careful observance of the recommendations of the attending physician, the rejection of self-help to restore and recover the health of the genitourinary system.