Miscellaneous

Toxoplasmosis in humans: symptoms and treatment. How to treat toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis - a congenital or acquired disease is a parasitic nature, affects the nervous system and organs of the reticuloendothelial system, the visual apparatus, skeletal muscle and myocardium.

To this day, this parasitic infestation does not lose its relevance and annually, according to WHO, it infected tens of thousands of people. Extremely frequent registration diseases related to the fact the causative agent of toxoplasmosis distributed almost everywhere, with every year risk of infection is increased by 0.5-1%.

In the case where a small amount of the pathogen enters the body of a healthy person, it does not pose a great danger, as covered by a dense shell and turns into a cyst. It is estimated that about half a billion people around the globe have antibodies to the causative agent of the disease.

What it is?

Toxoplasmosis - an infectious disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The disease can be asymptomatic, with symptoms of lymphadenopathy, mononucleosis-like symptoms until the damage to the central nervous system in immunocompromised individuals.

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Neonates may be chorioretinites, epipripadki, mental retardation. The diagnosis is confirmed serologically, histologically, and HCC. Treatment is perimetaminom in combination with sulfadiazine or clindamycin. Glucocorticoids are used in conjunction with the main chorioretinitis therapy.

The causative agent of toxoplasmosis

The causative agent of the disease - Toxoplasma gondii. This is the simplest unit of coccidia. It is movable and has an arcuate shape. If you look at the living organism under a microscope, it looks like a slice of orange.

The parasite can reproduce sexually and asexually. As a result of the sexual process occurring in the intestines, cysts formed. These forms are very resistant to environmental factors: no fear of low and high temperature drying. Together with these cysts faeces fall out and lead to infection with other organisms. Asexual reproduction does not lead to formation of resistant forms of the parasite.

Can you get toxoplasmosis from pets? Yes, because toxoplasmosis suffer about 60 species of birds and 300 species of mammals (wild and domesticated). However, the sexual process occurs only in the intestine felines. For 2 weeks the disease the cat may allocate up to 2 billion cysts, who live in the environment up to 2 years.

The forms of the disease

Toxoplasmosis can be congenital or acquired, it affects men less. When disease second type are three forms of flow, of which more is said below:

disease type

Features symptoms flow

acute toxoplasmosis
  • The incubation period - a few weeks;
  • the disease is difficult, without timely treatment can lead to death;
  • duration is from one week to several months;
  • full recovery does not occur in the adult remain disease of varying severity.
chronic toxoplasmosis
  • this form is characterized by constant aggravation, but it flows with almost no symptoms;
  • incomplete remission, brief;
  • exacerbations occur when SARS, Flu, taking immunosuppressants, cytostatics.
Latent
  • complete absence of symptoms;
  • Toxoplasmosis can not be detected.

symptoms of toxoplasmosis

The latent period of infection - up to two weeks. Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in humans in the initial period of the disease is almost do not appear or are not noticed. The pathogenesis of the disease determines its character - acquired or innate, manifesting an acute course, chronic and latent.

  1. The acute course of the disease is characterized by sudden onset with severe symptoms of intoxication and fever possible manifestation hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) and splenomegaly (enlargement of spleen). Sometimes there skin rashes, symptoms of encephalitis and meningoencephalitis.
  2. During heavy. Complicated by focal or widespread inflammatory reactions infarction, symptomatic manifestation neuropsychiatric or cognitive functional disorders (memory, mental functions and t.) frequently fatal outcome.

Chronicity characteristic of prolonged sluggish picture. Sometimes asymptomatic or with gradually increasing symptoms.

  1. Chronic intoxication over.
  2. Subfebrile temperature long (one month or more).
  3. Violation of visual functions - development of progressive myopia.
  4. CNS symptoms (convulsions, seizures, hysteria, hypochondria and unbalanced).
  5. Failure in endocrine function - impotence, decreased function of the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands, changes in the menstrual cycle.
  6. On the part of cardiac disorders marked signs of tachycardia, Heart pain, lower blood pressure.
  7. CNS symptoms (convulsions, seizures, hysteria, hypochondria and unbalanced).
  8. In more than half of patients with chronic toxoplasmosis diagnosed hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. On palpation the liver responds to pain. Significantly manifested its functional pathology.
  9. An increase in a large group of peripheral and mesenteric lymph nodes. When probing at first they are soft and painful, with the pain goes away over time, they are reduced, but their structure becomes denser.
  10. Muscle and joint pain - at muscular lesions except inflammatory processes in the muscle tissues probed painful densified regions due to the formation of calcifications.
  11. Impaired GI functions manifestation intoxication kserostamii (dry mouth), apathy to food, epigastric pain zone, constipation, and weight loss.

When latent course, even thorough diagnosis may reveal only residual old signs sclerosed foci lymph nodes or calcifications in muscle tissue. Confirm the diagnosis can only PRC study or intradermal test for antibodies to toxoplasma.

Diagnostics

If you experience anxiety symptoms should like to see a doctor as soon as possible, in time accurate diagnosis and to block the disease before the microorganisms cause irreparable harm body. Specialist should tell you about all of the signs of toxoplasmosis and about their way of life.

The physician should palpate the liver, spleen and lymph nodes - with sharpened toxoplasmosis they grow. Listening to heart arrhythmia show, and measurement of pressure - hypotension. If there is a risk of toxoplasmosis, it is necessary to pass venous blood parasites. by centrifuge serum (liquid part of blood) is received, to be examined for the presence of specific antibodies. In transferring the process to be identified with a marker immune globulin G, and acute process - with a marker M.

In addition, the following instrumental diagnostic studies are assigned:

  • electrocardiogram;
  • Abdominal ultrasound;
  • refractometry (study eye);
  • soft tissue X-rays and light.

Treatment can pick up only after all the necessary methods for diagnosis and confirmation of diagnosis.

The consequences of toxoplasmosis

The most life-threatening and serious consequences for the health of the patient with congenital toxoplasmosis are observed in the genesis of the disease. Often, infected pregnant women Toxoplasma in the initial stage of pregnancy causes prenatal mortality. For congenital toxoplasmosis is characterized by the development of pathological changes, especially in the brain, which manifests itself necrotizing encephalitis. Because Toxoplasma infection is prone to hematogenous and lymphatic spread of generalized, pathological changes and complications of the disease can be projected in almost any part of the human body.

Tendency to toxoplasmosis complicated course observed in individuals suffering from some form of immunodeficiency, and is caused by the activation and secondary bacterial component. This for toxoplasmosis is most often found in a particular category of HIV-infected patients who develop severe chronic form of the disease in need of long-acting drug correction.

In relatively healthy individuals, toxoplasmosis does not cause serious consequences, and even occurs in asymptomatic latent form. After transferred actively or clinical asymptomatic period in the human body is the formation of persistent immune defense mechanisms that prevent the likelihood of re-infection with Toxoplasma, which is especially important for women planning to have child.

How to treat toxoplasmosis?

For each patient, treatment of toxoplasmosis is assigned purely individual and lasts as long as it eliminates all clinical manifestations of the disease, worsening the quality of life.

In order to cope with the disease, require anti-parasitic drugs, which are often appointed in combination:

  • Piremetamin;
  • spiramycin;
  • azithromycin;
  • Daraprim;
  • sulfadimezin;
  • Clindamycin.

Drugs used courses at regular intervals over a long period. Assign hormones (glucocorticoids) patients the presence of lesions and organs of the nervous system.

It represents a serious threat to infection from this disease for people suffering from immunodeficiencies of various origins (eg. HIV) or receiving suppressive medication. In such patients is significantly worse prognosis, they are difficult to heal, they need special care scheme.

In the primary infection of pregnant women up to 17 weeks recommend therapeutic abortion, the fetus is dangerous not only to the parasite itself, but also drugs used to fight it. If this happens after this period, the patient treated with antiparasitic drugs.

Forecast

Acquired toxoplasmosis with adequate treatment and the normal functioning of the immune system tends to be a gradual regression. Recovery occurs within 1-4 months. After illness function of affected organs may not recover fully, as the location of inflammatory foci formed scarring zone. The vitreous is a small scar the retina deformation.

Recurrence of eye damage and nervous system has a probability of 50%. We need long-term clinical observation and prevention.

Overall prognosis remains favorable, providing a 95% recovery of patients with acquired toxoplasmosis. In congenital toxoplasmosis neonatal survival percentage is less than 40%.

prevention

Prevention of toxoplasmosis is as follows:

  • personal hygiene;
  • reduction in contact with cats;
  • in the case of a house cat, it is recommended to regularly inspect the animal on toxoplasmosis;
  • when planning pregnancy, women should be tested for toxoplasmosis;
  • exception consumption of raw and poorly roasted or cooked meat or minced meat;
  • at the use of vegetables, fruits and berries in contact with the ground, should be thoroughly washed;
  • strengthen the body's defenses (regular hardening, good nutrition, a healthy lifestyle).
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