Today, the disease is considered to be an urgent problem of medicine that affects the interests of pediatrics, dermatology, allergy, immunology and therapy. Atopic dermatitis can take a chronic form, and retain their signs throughout a person's life. Half of the children suffering from the disease eventually develop a variety of related complications.
What it is?
Atopic dermatitis in children - is a chronic, relapsing disease. Sometimes it is called diathesis, eczema, neurodermatitis. The disease is always present in the human body.
pathology springs hidden in the aggregate genetic predisposition to allergies in conjunction with unfavorable environmental factors. Kid, whose parents are sensitive to allergens, often prone to atopic dermatitis.
Distinguish the main reasons that provoke pathology:
- Severe pregnancy. Propensity to form baby to allergies, atopy can future problems with maternal health. Hazards are: the threat of failure, exacerbation of chronic diseases, infectious diseases, fetal hypoxia, intrauterine infection.
- Food allergy. Occurrence of atopic dermatitis in the infant promotes an unhealthy diet. For a child is dangerous unhealthy diet of the mother during pregnancy and breastfeeding. A woman who is abused vysokoallergennoy food overfeed the baby refuses breastfeeding or introduce solid foods early, often dooms the child to emergence pathology.
- Other allergens. Not only food capable of provoking pathology. The culprits dermatitis may become inhaled irritants (dust, household chemicals, pollen, air fresheners, house dust mites). Contact dermatitis caused cream, products for baby care wipes. Provocateur atopic dermatitis drug can act.
- Related disease. Atopic dermatitis often occurs in the child in combination with gastrointestinal illnesses. The most common are: intestinal dysbiosis, enterocolitis, worm infestation, gastritis.
On a variety of factors can affect the development of the disease or its aggravation:
- stress, psycho-emotional overstrain, nervous excitement;
- passive smoking;
- unfavorable environment;
- seasonal changes (the risk of infectious diseases in which the immune system experiences increased load);
- exercise, causing excessive sweating.
Dermatitis in children may result from any of the above reasons. Most often it provokes abnormal collection of the above-mentioned sources.
Atopic dermatitis in infants can manifest itself in the form of the following symptoms:
- severe itching;
- rashes on the face, in areas of the skin bending;
- anxiety baby, a bad dream;
- flushing of the skin;
- cracking at the site redness;
- the almost complete lack of appetite.
Clinicians have noted that in more complex cases, the child can raise the temperature up to 38 degrees.
Characteristic of this pathology lesions are located in such places:
- limb bends;
- ears, cheeks, chin.
Atopic dermatitis in the child age group from six months to three years is shown in the form of the following symptoms:
- excessive flaking of the affected parts of the skin;
- weight loss;
- increased dryness of the skin;
- redness of the skin;
- swelling of the skin;
- education pityriasis scales;
- forming gaskets (seats).
rash elements are localized in such places:
- airways mucosa;
- the elbow, foot;
- skin on the face;
- neck area.
For children in age group of over three years, is characterized by such symptoms progression of atopic dermatitis forms:
- redness of the skin;
- formation of cracks in the skin folds;
- increased dryness of the skin to form scale, visually resembling bran.
In some cases, a rash move into a stage of formation of crusts, which gradually dry up and fall off. It should also be noted that, for all ages, with the development of the pathological process, characterized by sudden weight loss, and the almost complete lack of appetite.
Clinicians say that in rare clinical situations at an early stage of the disease symptoms may be absent. In addition, many parents do not seek timely medical attention if symptoms of the above forms, trying to eliminate the symptoms by means of folk remedies.
This form of the disease is seasonal manifestations - in the summer is almost no symptoms, whereas in the winter there is aggravation.
What is atopic dermatitis in children: photo
The photo below shows how the disease manifests itself in children.
the disease stage
There are four stages of the disease:
|initial stage||develops in children with exudative catarrhal type of constitution. In this step, characterized by redness, swelling of the cheeks of the skin, desquamation. This stage, when time begun treatment in compliance with a hypoallergenic diet is reversible. When inadequate and delayed treatment may proceed in the following (expressed) step.|
|Severe stage||It passes chronic and acute phase of development. The chronic phase is characterized by a sequence of skin rash. Manifested acute phase mikrovezikuljatsii with the development of further scales and crusts.|
|remission||Symptoms decreased in remission or disappear altogether. This stage can last from several weeks to several years.|
|Step clinical recovery||at this stage, no symptoms of 3-7 years, depending on the severity of the disease.|
Staging, phase and period of the disease is important in making decisions on treatment strategy for short-term or long-term program.
Treatment of atopic dermatitis in children
At present, a complete cure of atopic dermatitis in children is not possible, because it is a chronic disease that requires long-term control of the disease. A comprehensive approach to therapy. Treatment consists of a selection of the most appropriate combination of supporting basic therapy (skin care) and anti-inflammatory therapy, as necessary.
Eliminating or reducing exposure to the allergen and reducing non-allergenic effects prevents aggravation of allergies. The effectiveness of treatment for atopic dermatitis is greatly improved under the condition of patient education, his parents and family in allergoshkol system.
The main goal of treatment of atopic dermatitis:
- Elimination or reduction of inflammatory changes in the skin and itching.
- Recovery of the structure and function of the skin, normalize skin moisture.
- Preventing the development of severe disease.
- Therapy associated diseases.
- Prevention of progression of atopic diseases (atopic march).
Since atopic dermatitis, a chronic disease, for the success of his treatment requires constant cooperation between the doctor and the small patient parents.
The efforts of doctors directed, primarily, to the suppression of allergic inflammation of the baby skin and reducing allergens action. Properly chosen diet, with the exception of diet food allergens, can greatly improve the condition, prognosis and outcome of atopic dermatitis.
Outdoor treatment plays an important role in treatment of children with atopic dermatitis. His choice depends on the condition of the skin area affected, and stage of the disease, and the goals are: inhibition of inflammation in the skin, reduction of itching, dryness elimination, prevention of secondary infection.
Directed drug therapy not only to eliminate the manifestations of dermatitis, but also to deal with the cause. To do this, children prescribed a variety of drugs:
- Antihistamines - Citrine, Diazolin, Suprastin. Assigned to reduce allergic reactions. Often these drugs are addictive, so they received a short course of 6-7 days.
- Hemosorbtion, plasmapheresis - blood purification techniques that help get rid of atopic dermatitis.
- Hormone therapy - metipred, triamcinolone. Exacerbation of disease when applied to withdrawal symptoms.
- Antibiotics - Erythromycin, Rondomitsin. Are appointed, if there is an infectious disease on the background of dermatitis. The treatment course of 7 days.
- Light treatment ultraviolet lamp - has almost no contraindications. It is necessary to carry out 2-3 treatments per week.
Also prescribe drugs to improve the gastrointestinal tract - Festal, Gepabene, Mezim, Linex. Dermatitis may be exacerbated if the child is observed disruption of the digestive system.
- Various ointments - levomikol, Bepanten, Panthenol, furatsilinovoy, Dioxide, Zinc ihtiolovoya or ointment.
- Vitamins - A, group B, E. To improve the condition of the skin and stimulate the regeneration process.
- Antiseptics - hydrogen peroxide fukortsin.
- Drugs with sorbent effect - Enterosorbent Polisorb. They derive from the body allergens.
- Immunostimulants - appointed rarely with acute forms of dermatitis.
A leading physician in children with atopic dermatitis should be a dermatologist, allergist and interacting with other specialists (neurologist, gastroenterologist).
Effective in atopic dermatitis external means. They are applied to the affected areas of the body. With the proposed recipes below can get rid of inflammation, eliminate excessive skin dryness.
Here are some folk remedies for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in children:
- aloe juice, raw potatoes or fresh pumpkin (there is moistened swabs and applied to the affected skin areas);
- Ointment of butter and Hypericum juice (1 tbsp. l. Hypericum juice mixed with 4 tbsp. l. melted butter, cooked means placed in the refrigerator and used subsequently for the lubrication of affected areas several times a day);
- cream from milk, rice starch and glycerol (all ingredients are taken in equal parts to 1 h.. L, mixed thoroughly and used for lubricating the skin at night);
- linseed oil with flowers of chamomile (100 ml linseed oil heated to 1 st. l. chamomile flowers, as received, means moistened tampons and applied to the affected area once every 3 hours during the week in the treatment of atopic dermatitis in a child folk remedies).
You can also use a bath of infusion of birch buds. For an infusion take 1 tbsp. l. kidney tree, pour a glass of boiling water and insist 3:00. After this cooked agent is filtered and poured into water, which will bathe the baby.
dermatitis treatment of a child: Dr. Komarovsky
Advice of Dr. Komarovsky - video.
Bathing in atopic dermatitis
Ban swimming in atopic dermatitis is a mistake, but a few simple rules must be observed:
- Bath or shower should be moderately warm. The optimal duration of bathing - about 20 minutes. It is better, if possible, use dechlorinated water (filters or settling in the water bath for 1-2 hours followed by the addition of boiling water.
- Do not use a washcloth to rub the skin, regardless of whether there are symptoms of atopic dermatitis at the moment. You can only use high-quality hypoallergenic cleansers with a neutral pH.
- During exacerbation of atopic dermatitis after bathing the skin should be soft wet towel (not wiping dry and did not rub!) and applied for 3 minutes emollient (Bepanten, Lipikar, F-99 etc.).
- Avoid swimming in pools with chlorinated water. In some cases, the negative effects can be avoided by applying the session after a shower with a mild detergent solution, followed by applying a skin moisturizing and softening agents.
Bathe in exacerbations of the disease is necessary for long, warm, and only boiled water or water passed through a good filter - water should not contain chlorine! Bathe celandine can be in a weak, slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate in the bath with the addition of sea salt (slightly). Soap and shampoo for atopic dermatitis use only child and not more than 1 time a week, so as not to wash the baby's skin with a protective film of fat.
The diet in the treatment of atopic dermatitis
Dieting during treatment plays an important role, especially in infants. Based on the prognosis of the disease, it is necessary to exclude products containing an allergen. In the first year of life, children can be sensitive to cow's milk, egg, gluten, cereals, nuts, citrus.
- In the case of allergy to cow's milk can be used soy mixture: Frisosoy, Nutrilak soybeans, Alsoy.
- In allergic reactions to soy proteins and severe food allergies, use gipoollergennye mixture: Pregestimil, Nutramigen, alfar (Nestle).
- When allergy to gluten (25% of children), it is recommended to use hypoallergenic cereal based on buckwheat, maize, rice industrial production - Remedy, Heinz, Istra-Nutricia, Humana.
Introduction to eat every new product must be approved by a doctor, not more than 1 product a day, small portions. Eliminating foods that cause allergies in children, it is necessary when confirmed their intolerance (you can take a blood test for a specific allergen).