Miscellaneous

Allergic Dermatitis: Symptoms, Picture, Treatment

Atopic Dermatitis - particular cutaneous reaction to contact with a substance perceived by the immune system as an allergen. Its manifestations - skin itching, redness and rashes, often causing oozing - only the outward manifestation of the complex process of allergic sensitization.

Treatment of cutaneous manifestations of allergic reactions involves desensitizing the course of therapy, which is complemented by the use of folk remedies and hypoallergenic diet.

What it is?

Atopic dermatitis - a skin disease that develops due to the influence of stimuli in the form of allergens and sensitizers. From it affects people with hypersensitivity to these substances.

It has been established that the cause of disease is an allergic reaction in slow motion.

Causes of

Contact dermatitis, such as, indeed, allergy, is enhanced by the reaction of the organism against allergens acting on it in one or another of their form.

Most often such allergens include the following types of substances:

  • nickel (earrings, necklaces, rings, decorations and so forth.);
  • latex (baby pacifiers, gloves, condoms, etc.);
  • clothing (in particular certain materials at its base: synthetic, rubber, latex, etc.);
  • cosmetics used in skin care products (shampoos, soaps, lotions, gels, and so forth.);
  • certain drugs (antibiotics, corticosteroid creams and so forth.);
  • other types of substances (inks, paints, etc.).

In general, the disease can develop exposed to body absolutely any substance, wherein the determining factor in this the issue is not based on the chemical composition of these substances, but on what the body's sensitivity to them in each specific case.

development mechanism

The bottom line is tuberkulinopodobnoy delayed-type hypersensitivity. Sensitivity is formed during a certain time period after the first contact with the allergen.

Upon reaching a critical level of immune response manifested disease. The molecules of the allergen is very small to be recognized by immune cells, but this helps the protein components that are attached to them when ingested, and give them the properties of the antigen.

Allergic properties of the substance depend upon the ability of its molecules to penetrate the body and create a stable connection of its proteins. In this case, a large role in the immune response does not belong to the antibodies, as usual, but lymphocytes and Langerhans cells. Since the first contact with the allergen T lymphocytes recognizing the antigen are accumulated in two weeks. After that, they are so-called memory cells and migrate into all the peripheral areas of the immune system.

Repeated contact with allergic factor is a rapid activation of immunological memory cell response.

Classification

There are several types of skin disorders that can occur as a consequence of an allergic reaction and proceed with significant inflammation of the skin.

Varieties of atopic dermatitis:

  1. Atopic. It characterized by neuro-allergic etiology. The symptoms of atopic dermatitis forms that resemble combination and respiratory manifestations of eczema. Among all the varieties of this disease is the most mild course.
  2. Drug reaction. It may be observed when the allergen penetration through the digestive tract, by inhalation or administration by injection. Often this is due to the medication, and clinical symptoms depend on the type of active ingredient. Lyell's syndrome refers to dangerous forms of drug reaction with a characteristic sharp necrolysis covers, general health deterioration and the appearance of specific bubbles in the armpits. Opening of these neoplasms provokes erosions. skin peeling may be subjected to approximately 20-40% of the area of ​​the skin.
  3. Contact. May develop after a second contact with a specific stimulus. The response of the organism to its influence is expansive external reaction. The main feature of this species is dermatitis, skin rashes that disappear spontaneously after elimination of contact with the allergen.
  4. Fitodermatit. The pollen and sap of plants from different families (goosefoot, buttercup, Primulaceae, lily, Euphorbiaceae), and in citrus fruits contain substances which covers ingress can cause severe reaction.

Atopic dermatitis on the face

Atopic dermatitis on the face often worried about is women. The fact that it is a major cause of skin contact allergens included in the cosmetic and care agents. Although men may well be faced with this problem, because the stimuli present in aftershave.

As a striking example sensitizer, resulting in the emergence of allergies to the face and neck, are the following substances:

  • metals (especially nickel, which is one of the most common materials for the manufacture of jewelry);
  • tires (part of the sponges in which makeup is applied);
  • acrylates (used in the manufacture of spectacle frames);
  • pine resin (a strong allergen being set ingredient of cosmetics).

Atopic dermatitis on the face and can cause pollen (both domestic and street) frostbite, chapping, prolonged exposure to direct sunlight, the reception of certain drugs drugs.

Stage of atopic dermatitis on the face and neck:

  • precipitation in the form of bubbles and blisters;
  • redness, itching and swelling of affected areas;
  • bullous stage characterized by scarring and dying off of the skin.

Mild allergic dermatitis on the face appears blisters, which dries to form a crust.

Atopic dermatitis in children

Often observed in infancy food intolerances and allergies in the child to receive this or that food. This is largely due to the immaturity of some organs and systems (eg, gastrointestinal), deficient production of enzymes, with a hereditary predisposition to allergies.

  1. It is believed that regular intake of certain foods or drugs during pregnancy the mother is able to influence the occurrence of phenomena of allergic dermatitis in the newborn, even when penetrating stimuli in breast milk.
  2. In case of contact allergens in the baby's immune system generates and stores specific antibody provoking inflammation of the skin. Frequent rashes on the face, referred to as "diathesis" parents. Localization region dermatitis phenomena can affect the shoulders, calves, buttocks.

By 1,5-2 years of life dermatitis can move to the next stage of development. Children dermatitis, in contrast to the infant, is characterized by rashes all over the body with a particularly strong manifestations in the knee-bend of the elbow, upper chest and back. Often, to 7-10 years of atopic dermatitis becomes chronic, recurrent occasionally happens, especially in spring and autumn.

Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in adults, photos

Symptoms of allergic dermatitis in adults appear depending on the form of the disease (see. Photo).

1) When the symptoms expressed by the contact form of the disease:

  • bright red spots lesions in different parts of the skin having contact with the allergen;
  • followed by displacement of spots bubbles filled with liquid;
  • constantly itchy process of focal lesions;
  • rash spread to healthy tissue, long-term impact of the stimulus, accompanied by joint aches, headaches and an increase in temperature characteristics.

Symptomatology diathesis (atopic form) manifests itself:

  • severely itchy rash on different parts of the body;
  • insomnia and nervous disorders on the background of the continuous itching;
  • inhibition or strong excitation;
  • joining staphylococcal or streptococcal infection in the foci of scratching;
  • septic foci formation, swelling, cracks and dry yellowish crust in place combed bubbles burst.

Signs toksikodermii accompanied by:

  • general weakness with possible loss of consciousness;
  • cold sweat and swelling;
  • joint pain and pain in the lumbar area;
  • bubbles of blood in certain areas of the skin;
  • lesions of the brain and spinal cord;
  • dysfunction of the lung and liver.

Signs of toxic epidermal necrolysis appear in a very short period of time after contact with the pathogen antigen. During one three days, the patient may die.

Symptoms:

  • a sudden increase in the temperature to very high levels, without any apparent reason;
  • skin rash on the trunk, arms and legs;
  • multiple swollen red spots, gradually merging into larger pockets;
  • foci formation in bubbles of various sizes (from palm size ill) covering their skin becomes thin, limp, easily broken by mechanical action;
  • involvement in the process of destruction of the mucous membranes and internal reproductive organs.

Stage of development of atopic dermatitis:

  1. Acute. After 1-2 days, or immediately after the close contact to the skin irritant occurs swelling, inflammation, rash, the patient complaining of a pronounced itching.
  2. Subacute. At the site of the rash produced signs soak, and later - and the signs of scab peeling.
  3. Chronic. Skin, prone to frequent inflammation, becomes rough and thickened.

The skin of infants is affected particularly negative factors. External signs of dermatitis in children in the first year of life are manifested in different ways.

complications

Running is not the treatment of allergic dermatitis can cause various complications in adults and children, being shown:

  • the development purulent lesions of the skin;
  • irreversible changes in the skin, cause skin atrophy;
  • fungal infections;
  • lesion of the respiratory tract in the form of an asthmatic bronchitis;
  • development ENT diseases;
  • worm infestation, abrasions;
  • memory loss.

Treatment of allergic dermatitis

Wait until the skin reaction will disappear on their own - absolutely not the right approach. No one is immune from re more rapid its manifestations and possible complications.

Scheme of treatment of atopic dermatitis:

  1. Elimination of the allergen.
  2. Antihistamines. Tavegilum, diphenhydramine, Suprastinum have serious side effects include drowsiness, violate coordination, reduced attention. Therefore antihistaminic treatment should be a new generation of drugs which do not cause such effects (zirtek, erius etc.).. Allergy, causes severe itching, eliminates fine fenkarol.
  3. Antipruritic treatment (sedatives - novopassit, tincture motherwort, valerian tablets).
  4. Formulations for detoxification enzymes (activated carbon mezim forte, lineks dysbacteriosis).
  5. Local therapy. Ointments and gels used anti-inflammatory, antipruritic and antifungal action (drug combined action - akriderm). Hormonal agents are not recommended for children and only used with the ineffectiveness of other drugs, the duration of use should not exceed 5 days.

In the treatment of folk remedies worth knowing: the use of medicinal herbs only eliminates the reaction of the skin and reduce the allergic disposition of the body, but does not eliminate the allergy itself.

food rules

Compliance with the rules of supply for dermatitis part of disease therapy and allows us to achieve a stable remission. Specially designed diet for allergic dermatitis in adults with daily menu rational eliminates allergens and accelerates the process of getting rid of the disease.

For highly probable irritating products include:

  • nuts;
  • coffee;
  • sauerkraut;
  • seafood;
  • citrus;
  • legumes;
  • chocolates;
  • Strawberry.

Also, do not allow the presence in the diet of foods with the content of preservatives, emulsifiers and dyes. Threatening allergic foods are rich broth, all fried, salty and spicy food, increase the permeability of the digestive tract to digest irritants.

During cooking it is important to respect the features of the technology and do not use products that have expired. Vegetables and fruits should buy one of those that have been grown without fertilizers. If the dishes are prepared from cereals, they need to be soaked in water for at least 10 hours. Consumption of sugar and salt is recommended to reduce by 2 times. As for meat, it is recommended to boil thoroughly twice.

Folk remedies

Methods of traditional medicine help to relieve the aggravation of allergic dermatitis, itching and oozing, as well as contribute to the early recovery of the skin:

  1. Bath and wiping series of infusions, chamomile, viburnum bark, root elecampane.
  2. Well heals and softens the skin cream of sea buckthorn oil, mixed with goose fat in equal proportions.
  3. Grind to grinder 5 plantain leaves, pour the slurry was 70 ml. dry white wine, leave for a day. Lubricate manifestations dermatitis, 2 times a day.
  4. Fresh basil leaves are ground to a pulp, and then applied a gauze bandage to the affected skin areas.
  5. Slurry of ground celery - an effective tool when becoming wet processes in the skin.

However, in some cases, folk remedies can only aggravate the situation, therefore, to engage in such treatment should be cautious.

ICD 10 code

Contact dermatitis is an allergic nature is classified in ICD-10 diagnoses of the following varieties:

  • disease provoked by exposure to metals - L23.0;
  • allergy caused adhesives - L23.1;
  • dermatitis provoked cosmetics - L23.2;
  • medicinal dermatitis - L23.3;
  • allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to dyes - L23.4;
  • dermatitis due to the influence of different chemicals - L23.5;
  • food dermatitis caused by skin contact - L23.6;
  • dermatitis due not edible plants - L23.7;
  • dermatitis provoked by exposure to certain substances - L23.8;
  • dermatitis unclear etiology - L23.9.

prevention

For prevention of atopic dermatitis avoid possible sensitization in any form (by necessity, medicaments, etc.).

Not recommended frequent topical application of drugs containing components vysokosensibiliziruyuschey ability:

  • beta-lactam antibiotics;
  • sulfonamides;
  • local anesthetics, etc ..

When production necessity contact with low molecular weight substances need to apply PPE (gloves, protective clothing, mask).

Allergy to rubber gloves, they should be replaced with vinyl. When planning surgical interventions in patients with allergies to latex need to take this into account. Such people are contraindicated latex condoms. If you are sensitive to formaldehyde must be very selective when choosing cosmetics. It is necessary to exclude cosmetics containing this preservative.

If a person diagnosed atopic dermatitis, then in order to prevent relapses and complications disease should familiarize him with the details of allergen sources, as well as cross-reactive substances.

Forecast

Upon detection of allergic contact dermatitis prognosis for life is good, but be sure to start his treatment. After the elimination of exposure to the allergen comes complete cure of the patient.

Sometimes the development of occupational dermatitis requires a change of profession, place of work.

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