Values ​​are in psychology: definition, examples of a person, group, social


  1. The concept of values ​​in psychology
  2. Types of values
  3. Material values
  4. Spiritual values
  5. Social values
  6. Terminal and instrumental values
  7. The importance of personal values
  8. What are group values, examples
  9. Hierarchy of values
  10. How human behavior changes when you know personal values
  11. How to apply the created priorities?
  12. Video about human values ​​in psychology

Values ​​are basic elements underlying human behavior, needs and knowledge of the world. In psychology, it is customary to distinguish several categories and hierarchies of values ​​that help to better understand the nature, aspirations and fears of each individual.

The concept of values ​​in psychology

The concept of values ​​in psychology has a dual explanation: first of all, they are determined by society, in which a person is formed, but on the other hand, they are a unique personal perception the world.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

Values ​​are the basis for the formation of subjective beliefs and worldviews, which are determined through the personal experience of each person.

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Values ​​are an important aspect in psychology for understanding the basic factors that affect a person's actions, aspirations and orientations:

  • they create a lifestyle;
  • indicate priorities and fears;
  • determine the criteria for development at each stage of life.

The value system develops throughout life, in stages, and covers all levels of human development. So, for example, the preschool age is very important for the successful socialization of a child at school.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

At this time, the child forms basic values, the inner basis of the personality, the first signs of cognitive change and the development of cause-and-effect relationships appear.

Everything that in the future will form persistent beliefs and moral judgments about such concepts as good and evil, respect and work, and one's own destiny.

Thus, on the basis of the process of socialization of the individual and the successful satisfaction of his own needs, a person is formed own values, ideas about how society exists, by what means you can achieve what you want and how to build relationships with others.

Values ​​are in psychology an integral part of the worldview, which forms the beliefs of every person. Personal values ​​are the main catalyst for actions, assessments of events and self-realization.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples
Human values ​​in psychology - what it is, how it is manifested.

The problem of values ​​is always relevant and multifaceted - with its help in psychology, one can analyze why a personality is formed by or in another way, or to study the direct influence of the external environment as one of the key factors that determines the fate of an individual.

Types of values

The types of values ​​have different classifications and always depend on the sphere in which they are used, be it philosophy, axiology, sociology or political science. In psychology, values ​​are initially divided into material and intangible.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

They, in turn, have many subgroups. The main criterion by which certain values ​​are formed in psychology is the degree of need for something.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

All human aspirations can be divided into 5 classes:

  • material;
  • spiritual;
  • social (public and professional);
  • thermal;
  • instrumental.

Material values

Material values ​​in psychology describe the cultural and moral needs of a person.

The formation of material values ​​is more influenced by:

  • the environment and the ideals and aspirations prevalent in it;
  • personal reasons;
  • social opportunities.

In the long term, material values ​​form human life goals and motives of activity, help to determine the sphere of employment and their own interests. The need to satisfy the needs for money and other material objects of existence is different for each person.

People have different attitudes towards the desire to purchase their own home, means of transportation and other comforts. But for many people, it is material values ​​that are the foundation for development.

After all, having provided material needs, a person can either stop developing, or begin to develop spiritual or social values, the balanced development of which is the basis for a harmonious human existence in society.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

Talking about the triviality of the satisfaction of material values ​​is fundamentally wrong. Despite the fact that each person simultaneously develops his own values ​​in different areas, if the question satisfaction of material values ​​is closed, the development of other values ​​occurs faster and more qualitatively.

On the other hand, not every person needs to have a lot of material wealth (for example, a monk), or vice versa - a person may not want to develop, in addition to the accumulation of material wealth. The vector of development is always individual aspirations, which are influenced by many different factors.

Spiritual values

Spiritual values ​​are one of the decisive factors that determine the behavior and aspirations of each person. The definition of the spiritual values ​​of a person refers to his needs, outside the material and physiological needs, that is, to the ethical, aesthetic and cognitive spheres of activity.

The main spiritual values ​​of a person include such aspects of existence as:

  • the ability to express the will and creative implementation of their own ideas;
  • the manifestation of all selfless actions;
  • intellectual development;
  • awareness of social norms of behavior;
  • showing respect for other members of society.
Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

This category of values ​​is more abstract, since it is not aimed at achieving visible and prestigious manifestations of human actions, but rather refer to any intangible manifestation of human existence in the world.

The main goal of spiritual values ​​is to maintain willpower and morale in difficult moments and in conflict situations.

Social values

From a psychological point of view, social values ​​characterize any manifestation of interpersonal relationships.

They form the optimal norms of behavior in the environment, helping to take a certain position in society, express their own opinion and assess what is happening, without fear of being judged by others.

Social values ​​are laid in the foundation of the consciousness of each person, from which future goals and aspirations for self-realization and satisfaction of their own needs grow.

Social values ​​are a set of complex attitudes, and psychologists identify their three-component structure that affects the thinking, behavior and reactions of a person in the environment. The formation of a person's social values ​​is influenced by the nature and needs of a person, but they are a reaction to such environmental conditions.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples


  • historical context;
  • cultural environment;
  • the presence of their own interests and the search for the possibility of their manifestation in society.

Also, social values ​​have a wide sphere of influence. On the one hand, they apply to political, legal, economic and any other human activity, in which he interacts with other people, that is, social values ​​regulate the system of behavior of weak ties in society.

On the other hand, social values ​​regulate the relationship of an individual in his professional activity, interpersonal relationships with family, friends and in relationships in a couple, that is, they determine the rules of behavior in a close communication environment.

The most prominent examples of social values ​​that help maintain harmonious relationships are:

  • love;
  • respect;
  • friendship;
  • kindness;
  • devotion;
  • utility;
  • the highest social ideals.

On the other hand, many people have negative social values ​​such as selfishness, aggression, hatred and envy.

Adhering to such criteria, each person tries not only to develop his own interest in life in society, he also to be useful to others.

Terminal and instrumental values

Thermal and instrumental values ​​in human psychology describe the optimal means of achieving goals and aspirations in life. They are the fundamental beliefs of the individual, form the vector of development of human aspirations and goals.

Thermal values ​​lay the foundation for understanding what a person is striving for at one time or another in life. Instrumental values ​​relate more to the means and ways to achieve the desired.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

From a functional point of view, instrumental values ​​are realized as standards and criteria for one's own behavior on the way to achieving thermal values. Instrumental values ​​assess conditions and plan steps to achieve final values.

So, for example, decorating a house is an instrumental value, and the resulting feeling of comfort is thermal. Exercise is instrumental value on the way to achieving the ultimate (thermal) goal of being in good shape or improving health.

The importance of personal values

Values ​​are a fundamental aspect of the formation of a person's essence in personality psychology.

Equally important is the fact that regardless of whether a person realizes his own values ​​or not, they express the significance of his actions, determine the reliability of human decisions, form mechanisms of interaction with other people, and also - are the basis for self-realization.

Values ​​in psychology play an important role in the development of individual traits of a person's character. Moreover, values ​​are the result of the interaction between the individual and the environment in which he lives.

Their development is influenced by the constant relationship between the impact of subjective perception and environmental factors:

  • family component as a fundamental aspect, unconscious copying of norms of behavior in society and cognitive models of information perception;
  • the influence of the media;
  • group values ​​(religious, national, youth and political)
  • social status of a person, his family;
  • career success;
  • educational activities (school, university, vocational education and hobbies);
  • the level of personal development, the success of differentiation and maturation of a person.
Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

Values ​​in human psychology are also a good explanation of their social, cultural and political behavior: in each important for human area, values ​​perform a specific function of activity, which helps to translate into reality the desired and avoid unacceptable.

Stable individual values ​​have a strong influence on such aspects of personality as:

  • self-awareness and stress resistance;
  • understanding your own strengths and weaknesses, their development;
  • understanding the social value of one's own actions;
  • ensuring a high level of communication and teamwork;
  • strategic planning, translating what was conceived into reality;
  • adequate analysis of what is happening;
  • self-reflection and willingness to change.

Thus, the assimilation of certain values ​​occurs from early childhood, but due to the active rethinking of life experience, the values ​​of each person can change.

The main catalyst for such changes is new life experience, the process of actively rethinking what is happening, changing the needs and subjective perception of a person.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

Thus, at the level of individual consciousness, values ​​govern the life and activities of a person, underlie any assessments and perceptions, and also influence final decisions.

What are group values, examples

Group values ​​in psychology denote the norms of behavior adopted in a particular society, organization or environment, with the aim of maximizing effective existence and understanding.

Group values ​​can have different origins:

  • group values ​​as a result of cultural and historical experience (unconscious copying of tradition);
  • group values ​​purposefully created to support the existence of a formal organization (for example, a corporate culture at Google), or an informal movement (for example, the rules of solidarity among climbers or youth groupings).

Regardless of the scale of group values, their main goal is to create an understandable language for communication and norms of behavior.

Therefore, they regulate social behavior, set criteria for the most important aspects of human existence, give a specific idea of ​​good and evil, justice and beauty - aspects, the attitude towards which may differ in different group cultures.

Examples of group values Key features
Age values Depending on age, a person tends to share values ​​that are characteristic of different demographic groups: schoolchildren, students, youth or retirees.
National values They are characteristic of a certain group of people, regardless of age, professional or social status. National values ​​underlie a person's identity and self-identification with a certain culture, history and locality.
Sexual values Characteristic signs of behavior that are learned by men and women, depending on gender.
Religious (confessional) values They are part of the values ​​that shape a person's worldview about the laws and reasons for the existence of the world.
Professional values They are formed in a person depending on the environment of activity. Professional values ​​are at the core of interpersonal behavior, communication style and teamwork.
Subcultural values More often they are characteristic of the younger generation, subcultures of value unite confederates around a common interest in musical, game or dance genres.
Public values They underlie accepted norms of behavior among group members, and are considered the most basic manifestations of an optimal understanding of how to interact with others and how to benefit society.
Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

Regardless of the goal, group values ​​will determine the optimal behavior among the participants, establish a framework for what is acceptable and desirable. They are also characterized by persistence in consistency and a rigid nature of variability.

Usually, a change in some values ​​by others is accompanied by a crisis and the creation of new rules of behavior. It is equally important to take into account that values ​​acceptable to one group can be assessed by other people as destructive, harmful or false.

Hierarchy of values

In the process of personal formation, each person sets his own hierarchy of values, forms a certain ideal of behavior. Therefore, the question of the difference in the hierarchy of values ​​lies in personal experience and needs, which everyone consciously or unconsciously supports as the main norms of behavior.

Forming a certain hierarchy of values, one can refer to different selection criteria (pleasure, safety, benefit or virtue), because of which, the value picture will differ even among peers of the same social groups.

For example, health, family or religious values ​​often underlie the value hierarchy of the older generation, and they are inferior to the rest - professional, social or material.

On the other hand, among the younger generation, the emphasis will be on patriotic, professional or material values, while political or religious ones may be completely absent.

It is equally important to take into account that the hierarchy of certain values ​​always helps to understand what a person values ​​most of all, and what he is ready to sacrifice in the event of a conflict of values.

How human behavior changes when you know personal values

The value system of each person is able to show what is natural and acceptable for him, and vice versa - what a person is not able to admit. Therefore, if you know the personal values ​​of each person, then this knowledge can have a double meaning.

Firstly, they help to maximize the professional potential of a person, and secondly, they can also be successfully manipulated.

Human values ​​in psychology. What is it, definition, examples

Thus, if you know a person's personal values, it helps to predict his behavior, understand priorities and aspirations in career, relationships, and in self-development.

How to apply the created priorities?

Very often, without realizing it, a person can ignore their own basic values ​​(for example, family or hobbies) due to the pressure of society and the illusory desire for success.

After realizing your own values, it is usually easy to build a hierarchy of priorities, assess your own strengths and weaknesses, and identify potential directions for development and a harmonious life.

Psychology also emphasizes the importance of constantly reminding yourself of which values ​​are important and meaningful to yourself.

This reminder is an important technique that always helps you stay on the right track, avoid getting upset over trifles, and maintain your own dignity in stressful situations.

Video about human values ​​in psychology

What are the main human values:

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