Miscellaneous

SPO2 is the norm for adults, children. What is it, a table, how to increase

Content

  1. Characteristics and properties
  2. The table is ok
  3. Decrease symptoms
  4. Reasons for downgrading
  5. Obstructive pulmonary disease
  6. Lungs' cancer
  7. Pneumonia
  8. Emphysema of the lungs
  9. Anemia
  10. Bronchial asthma
  11. Indications for research
  12. How is it determined
  13. Pulse Oximetry
  14. Laboratory research
  15. How to bounce back
  16. Antibacterial therapy
  17. Therapy with bronchodilators and mucolytics
  18. Surgery
  19. Antianemic therapy
  20. Oxygen therapy
  21. SpO2 video

The rate of saturation index (SPO2) in children and adults depends on the influence of a large number of factors. In a smoker, the level of blood saturation with oxygen molecules is an order of magnitude lower than in an adolescent child with healthy bronchopulmonary tissue and organs of the cardiovascular system.

Measurement of the saturation index is carried out using an electronic a device called a pulse oximeter. Depending on the general condition of a person, a laboratory blood test method can be used.

Characteristics and properties

In adults and children, saturation is a physiological process of saturation of the peripheral vessels of the human body with a certain amount of oxygen. The rate of this indicator (SPO2) fluctuates depending on the age of the subject, his lifestyle, the presence or absence of chronic diseases of the heart, lungs, bronchial tree and blood.

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Under the influence of physical exertion, due to the abuse of alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, the level of blood saturation can decrease by 1-2%. In people with respiratory failure, this indicator is critically low. Measurement of blood oxygen saturation allows timely detection of a drop in the level of blood oxygen saturation, and also carry out appropriate therapy aimed at restoring stable gas exchange in the body sick.

The table is ok

The table below shows the indicators of the normal level of saturation for adults and children, as well as indicated values ​​of the degree of blood oxygen saturation, which indicate an unsatisfactory state of the respiratory systems.SPO2 is the norm for adults, children. What is it, a table, how to increase

Blood saturation level The physiological state of a person
95 to 98% This level of blood saturation is an indicator of the norm. Such diagnostic results of the patient confirm the satisfactory state of his bronchopulmonary tissue, good binding of hemoglobin with oxygen molecules. In this case, there are no signs of pathological changes in the structure of bronchopulmonary tissue.
Within 94% A decrease in the level of oxygen saturation to 94% indicates that a person has an acute or chronic disease of the body that disrupts the process of saturating the blood with a sufficient volume of oxygen. Patients with such examination results are sent for additional studies using laboratory and instrumental diagnostic methods.
Around 92% or lower A similar level of blood saturation indicates a critical condition of the patient. People with these diagnostic results experience acute symptoms of oxygen starvation, and also need urgent hospitalization in the pulmonary department. Without urgent blood saturation with a sufficient volume of oxygen, a lethal outcome is possible.

SPO2 is the norm for adults, children. What is it, a table, how to increaseIn medical practice, there are occasional cases when people with a saturation level of 89% do not feel sick. Most often these are heavy smokers who show signs of bronchial obstruction. The body of such people over the years of smoking has adapted to stressful loads caused by oxygen deprivation.

Decrease symptoms

The SPO2 norm in adults is determined using a compact pulse oximeter, which can be used not only in a hospital, but also at home.

A decrease in the level of blood saturation can be easily noticed by the appearance of the following symptoms:

  • shortness of breath, which occurs after performing physical activity, as well as when the body is in a calm state;
  • severe dizziness;
  • violation of normal coordination of movements;
  • headache attacks, which intensify at the time of a progressive drop in the level of oxygen in the blood;
  • compressive pain inside the chest, the presence of which often leads to a misdiagnosis;
  • tremor of the fingers;
  • feeling short of breath;
  • cyanosis of the skin in the area of ​​\ u200b \ u200bthe triangle of the nose, fingers of the upper extremities;
  • heart palpitations;
  • confusion of consciousness, accompanied by delirium.

The most critical symptom of decreased saturation levels is loss of consciousness. Adults and children who are diagnosed with the above signs of a morbid state of the body should be connected to a ventilator.

Reasons for downgrading

SPO2 norm in adults and children does not exceed 98%. A higher level of oxygen saturation is possible in patients undergoing intensive oxygen therapy. In most cases, a decrease in SPO2 is always associated with pathological reasons in the form of acute or chronic diseases of the body.

Obstructive pulmonary disease

Obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic disease of the respiratory system, which leads to a disruption in the process of saturating the blood with sufficient oxygen. In the early stages of development of bronchial obstruction, symptoms of shortness of breath, feelings of shortness of breath appear. The main signs of pathology arise at the time of physical exertion.

SPO2 is the norm for adults, children. What is it, a table, how to increase

As the disease progresses, atrophy of the bronchial tissues joins this symptomatology, which is accompanied by a gradual drop in the oxygen level in the general blood flow.

This reason for the decrease in blood saturation indicators is caused by the influence of the following factors:

  • constant contact of bronchopulmonary tissue with tobacco smoke;
  • work in workshops with strong gas or dusty air;
  • chronic burns of the mucous membrane of the lower respiratory tract with vapors of acids and alkaline compounds;
  • living in a region with an unfavorable ecological situation, where the air is polluted with a large amount of chemicals.

In developing countries with low levels of medical examination, obstructive pulmonary disease is 90% fatal. This cause of reduced blood oxygen saturation is incurable, but its symptoms can be alleviated by completely eliminating smoking, moving to a region with a mild climate, where humid air predominates without dust and harmful components.

Lungs' cancer

Lung cancer is an oncological disease that develops as a result of the occurrence of a malignant tumor in the structure of the bronchopulmonary tissue. This pathology is one of the most severe causes of a progressive decrease in blood oxygen saturation.

Lung cancer is consistently diagnosed in 70 adult men and women for every 100,000. Human. Any part of the bronchopulmonary tissue can be in the affected area. The larger the tumor neoplasm, the more it disrupts the functions of the respiratory system, provokes a percentage decrease in the level of oxygen saturation of the blood.

Adult men and women of the following categories are at increased risk of acquiring blood oxygen saturation due to lung cancer:

  • smokers over 40 years of age;
  • chronic alcoholics;
  • having a genetic predisposition to oncological pathologies of the respiratory system;
  • working with asbestos, arsenic, radon, metal dust;
  • suffering from obstructive diseases of the lower respiratory tract.

In stage 4 lung cancer, blood oxygen saturation may decrease by 1% within 5-7 days. Early diagnosis of a tumor neoplasm allows you to prevent a violation of gas exchange, to take measures to remove altered tissues of the lung and bronchial tree.

Pneumonia

Viral and bacterial pneumonia is one of the most common causes of decreased blood oxygen saturation. This pathology is characterized by acute inflammation of the lungs, which leads to the development of edema of their tissues, violation of the natural process of air absorption with its further distribution in all departments organism.SPO2 is the norm for adults, children. What is it, a table, how to increase

Patients diagnosed with pneumonia are regularly diagnosed with the level of oxygen enrichment in the blood using the pulse oximetry method. Saturation developed against the background of acute pneumonia is most often the cause of death. At risk are elderly people, as well as patients who have concomitant diseases of the body, proceeding in a severe form.

Emphysema of the lungs

SPO2 norm in adults depends on the presence or absence of chronic pathologies of the respiratory system. Emphysema of the lungs is a disease that leads to a disruption in the process of gas exchange within the bronchopulmonary tissue.

This reason for the decrease in the level of blood saturation develops against the background of morphological changes in the alveoli. Under the influence of this disease, the lungs swell, acquire a pale color shade, their edges become more rounded, and the physiological elasticity of tissues is impaired.

In patients who have previously suffered acute pneumonia, mucous and purulent plugs may appear, localized inside this organ. The main danger of this reason for a decrease in the level of blood saturation is that throughout the entire period development of emphysema of the lungs, the risk of alveolitis remains with the further destruction of the septa that share.

Anemia

Anemia is a hematological disease that is accompanied by a decrease in the number of red blood cells, as well as a drop in hemoglobin levels. In this case, a violation of the normal process of saturation occurs due to a pathological change in the cellular composition of the blood.

A patient with signs of a drop in the level of oxygen in the general bloodstream may have absolutely healthy respiratory organs systems, but the deficiency of erythrocytes excludes the possibility of transporting gases entering the lungs along with air. Anemia is caused by many external and internal factors.SPO2 is the norm for adults, children. What is it, a table, how to increase

Adult men and women of the following categories are at risk of developing saturation against the background of this hematological disease:

  • monotonous diet with a predominance of exclusively dairy products;
  • diet abuse;
  • deficiency of vitamins and minerals;
  • parasitic infestations (for example, infection of the intestines with various types of helminths);
  • consequences of profuse blood loss;
  • the period of recovery of the body after surgery and prolonged infectious diseases.

The restoration of the normal level of blood saturation occurs as the numerical index of erythrocytes in the bloodstream normalizes.

Bronchial asthma

Bronchial asthma is another of the most common causes of decreased blood oxygen saturation. In this case, a drop in oxygen concentration in the bloodstream occurs due to a sudden or gradually increasing spasm of large and smaller bronchi.SPO2 is the norm for adults, children. What is it, a table, how to increase

During an asthma attack, a person is deprived of the opportunity to carry out full breathing. This leads to the fact that a significantly smaller amount of oxygen enters the bloodstream, signs of hypoxia begin. In most cases, bronchial asthma is the result of an allergic reaction of the body to external and internal stimuli.

Indications for research

The SPO2 norm in adults can be altered by external and internal factors.

Diagnostics to determine the level of blood saturation is indicated for people who have the following diseases and pathological conditions of the body:

  • obstructive pulmonary disease;
  • postoperative rehabilitation period;
  • viral or bacterial pneumonia;
  • severe forms of anemia and other hematological diseases, during which the process of transporting oxygen to the tissues of the body is disrupted;
  • benign and malignant neoplasms in the structure of bronchopulmonary tissue;
  • restoration of normal body functions after prolonged anesthesia;
  • pulmonary artery thrombosis, as well as concomitant complications associated with the presence of this pathology;
  • acute respiratory failure;
  • obstructive sleep apnea syndrome;
  • severe injuries of the lungs and bronchial tree;
  • an acute allergic reaction accompanied by a prolonged asthma attack;
  • emphysema of the lungs.

Determination of the level of blood saturation is indicated for patients undergoing a course of complex therapy using oxygen and a ventilator.

A blood oxygen saturation test may be ordered by a pulmonologist, cardiologist, general practitioner or pediatrician. For patients with signs of viral or bacterial pneumonia, a referral for this type of diagnosis is prescribed by an infectious disease doctor.

How is it determined

The SPO2 norm in adults is determined using 2 main methods. This is a measurement of oxygen saturation using a pulse oximeter or laboratory blood test.

Pulse Oximetry

Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive method for diagnosing the level of oxygen saturation in the blood. This type of instrumental research is based on the spectrographic method for determining the saturation.SPO2 is the norm for adults, children. What is it, a table, how to increase

The conduct of this survey is as follows:

  1. The patient is in a sitting or lying position on a couch.
  2. The healthcare professional places a pulse oximeter on the forefinger of the subject's dominant hand.
  3. After that, the doctor or nurse presses the start button on the pulse oximeter control panel.
  4. Within 3-5 seconds, 2 digital values ​​will appear on the monitor.
  5. The upper number displays the percentage of oxygen in the blood, and the lower number indicates the heart rate.

A prerequisite for determining saturation using pulse oximetry is that at the time of the measurement manipulations the dominant hand should not be in a suspended state. The upper limb should be placed on a bed or manipulation table surface.

This type of diagnosis can be carried out independently at home. To do this, it is enough to purchase a pulse oximeter, the average cost of which is from 1200 to 1650 rubles. depending on the manufacturer.

Laboratory research

For laboratory diagnostics of the saturation level, the patient's venous or arterial blood is used. In this case, 5 to 10 ml of biological material is sufficient. Blood sampling takes place under sterile conditions using disposable consumables.

The results of laboratory research are known after 1-2 days from the moment of sampling the biological material. In urgent cases, a faster diagnosis is possible. For example, if the patient is in serious condition. A laboratory test for blood oxygen saturation is carried out free of charge as part of the provision of emergency medical care to the patient.

How to bounce back

To restore the normal level of blood saturation, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease that caused oxygen starvation of the body.

Antibacterial therapy

Antibiotics are prescribed for patients who have been diagnosed with a decrease in blood oxygen saturation levels against the background of bacterial pneumonia. The type of medicinal product is selected taking into account the strain of the infectious pathogen diagnosed based on the results of the patient's examination. The selection of the dosage of the medication is performed by an infectious disease doctor, therapist or pulmonologist. Pneumonia of bacterial etiology is treated with antibiotics in tablets and injections.

Therapy with bronchodilators and mucolytics

The appointment of bronchodilator and mucolytic agents is carried out in the event that a decrease in blood saturation caused by obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema with signs of mucous accumulation content.

In this case, the following drugs can be used:

  • Hexoprenaline;SPO2 is the norm for adults, children. What is it, a table, how to increase
  • Fenoterol;
  • Salmeterol;
  • Clenbuterol;
  • Saltos;
  • Mukaltin;
  • Ambroxol;
  • Acetylcysteine;
  • Ambrobene;
  • syrup based on licorice root extract.

The above types of drugs expand the spasmodic walls of the bronchi and vessels of the respiratory system, promote the removal of mucous contents from the lungs.

Surgery

The use of this method of therapy, aimed at restoring the normal level of blood saturation, is used only in extreme cases. For example, in relation to patients with signs of the initial stage of lung cancer.

In such a clinical situation, the attending physician may decide to perform a surgical operation to remove an extraneous neoplasm. The patient will be able to avoid long-term chemotherapy with harmful drugs that do not always bring a positive effect.

In most cases, part of the lung tissue is resected together with the tumor. After the healing of the operated respiratory organ, a sufficient amount of oxygen again enters the patient's blood without signs of a decrease in the saturation level. The average duration of complete recovery of the body after surgical removal of a lung tumor is 3 to 6 months. depending on the type of extraneous neoplasm, the patient's age and the stage of the pathological process.

Antianemic therapy

Patients with signs of decreased blood saturation who are diagnosed with anemia receive the following treatment:

  • taking preparations based on iron oxide in the form of Fersinol-3, Totem, Hemoferon, Aktiferin;
  • a diet involving the consumption of large amounts of fresh fruits and vegetables, red meat, offal;
  • introduction of vitamin and mineral complexes (Alphabet, Complivit, Vitrum, Supradin) into the daily diet.

Anemia is a complex disease, the treatment tactics of which depend on the factors that provoked a drop in the level of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood.

Oxygen therapy

Oxygen therapy is an effective method for quickly eliminating signs of decreased blood saturation. The implementation of this method of treatment involves connecting the patient to a device that supplies concentrated oxygen inside his respiratory system. Oxygen therapy prevents the development of acute hypoxia of body tissues, allows the patient to save life, but at the same time the pathological cause that provoked a drop in the level of saturation is not eliminated blood.

The SPO2 norm in adult men and women, as well as in children of all age groups, ranges from 95 to 98%. This level of saturation of blood with oxygen molecules indicates the stable functioning of the respiratory system, heart and blood vessels.

To determine the blood saturation index, the pulse oximetry method is used, as well as a laboratory study of venous blood. Violation of the level of oxygen saturation of the body is possible due to the presence of chronic bronchitis, obstructive pulmonary disease, neoplasm or bronchial asthma.

SpO2 video

Komarovsky about pulse oximetry - what is it:

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