- Reasons for the development of vertebrobasilar insufficiency
- Risk factors
- Classification of the disease in neurology
- Acute VBN
- Chronic VBI
- Spondylogenic VBI
- Vertebrobasilar syndrome in osteochondrosis
- Complications and consequences
- Conservative therapy
- Experimental treatment
- Alternative treatment
- Vitamin C
- Horse chestnut
- Recipes for hypertensive patients
- Video about VBN
VBI (vertebrobasilar insufficiency) Is a disease characterized by impaired blood supply to the brain. To make an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo a series of studies and consult a neurologist.
Reasons for the development of vertebrobasilar insufficiency
Pathology develops for several main reasons, which can only be determined by a qualified specialist on the basis of anamnesis and diagnostics. In most cases, the disease occurs against the background of damage to the basilar or vertebral artery.
- atherosclerotic lesions of the arteries (vertebral or main);
- the formation of blood clots in the area of these arteries;
- defeat by osteochondrosis of the cervical spine;
- development of inflammatory processes affecting the vascular system;
- abnormal structure of blood vessels or vertebrae;
- damage to the neck, which led to compression of blood vessels;
- high blood pressure, accompanied by the development of spasms in the area of the arteries;
- violation of blood flow caused by stenosis;
- fibromuscular dysplasia;
- hypertrophic changes in the region of the cervical muscles;
Establishing the exact cause of the development of the violation will allow you to choose the most effective method of treatment.
Various external and internal factors that have a negative effect on the entire body can provoke the development of pathology.
- high blood sugar and lipoproteins (dyslipidemia);
- chronically high blood pressure;
- high blood viscosity;
- head or neck injuries;
- an abnormally rapid decrease in blood pressure;
- bad habits - smoking, alcoholic beverages;
- hypertensive crisis;
- stressful situations;
- congenital or acquired valve defects.
- Improper performance of massage actions.
A prolonged uncomfortable position of the head or a sharp turn of the neck can also cause the development of the disease.
Classification of the disease in neurology
VBI is a diagnosis in neurology, which is often established in conjunction with other disorders of the vascular system. However, the disease has a clear separation from other disorders and has an international disease code. According to the international classification of diseases (ICD-10), VBI pathology belongs to the G45 heading (class 5 - "Vascular diseases of the nervous system") and is called "Syndrome of vertebrobasilar arterial systems ".
The specificity of the symptoms depends on the stage of the disorder, the form and nature of the course of the pathological process. However, the disease, regardless of its form, has several common signs by which one can suspect the onset of the formation of pathology.
- dizziness, which is often accompanied by the development of nausea and vomiting;
- decreased hearing and visual organs, including short-term blindness;
- pain in the occiput;
- asthenic syndrome;
- impaired coordination of movements and loss of balance;
- damage to the facial nerve, causing facial asymmetry;
- pain while swallowing;
- mild impairment of motor functions.
In some cases, there may be a decrease in sensitivity, which in more severe cases causes facial numbness.
With an acute course of the disease, external and internal signs are more pronounced than in other cases. In this case, the duration of the process can take from several minutes to several hours.
Pathology is characterized by rapid development, ischemic attacks occur. In 30% of cases, a violation can provoke a stroke.
With a chronic course of the disease, the symptoms are periodically repeated. However, during the intervals between attacks, there are signs characteristic of vertebrobasilar insufficiency.
- headaches (localization in the occipital region of the head);
- movement coordination disorder (ataxic syndrome);
- noise in ears;
- repeated episodes of dizziness;
- disorders of memory functions;
- decreased auditory perception.
The disease occurs periodically with alternating exacerbation and decrease in symptoms.
This form of disorder is otherwise referred to as vertebral artery syndrome. The symptomatology of the pathology arises spontaneously with sharp rotations of the head and is characterized by loss of balance and falling without loss of consciousness (drop attacks). In this case, ataxic syndrome often occurs.
- frequent dizziness;
- noise in ears;
- decreased auditory perception (damage to one ear);
- feeling of grit in the eyes;
- feeling before the eyes of sparks, lightning, dots (photopsia);
- pain syndrome radiating to the arm or shoulder.
In the region of the cervical spine, signs of cyanosis may appear on the skin, excessive dryness, blanching or excessive sweating may develop.
Vertebrobasilar syndrome in osteochondrosis
VBI is a diagnosis in neurology, which must be confirmed by other related specialists and differentiated from other similar pathological conditions. Thus, the disease can proceed against the background of osteochondrosis. With such a pathology, violations occur in the region of the cervical vertebrae, which leads to changes in the arteries (squeezing). This, in turn, causes the disease.
- degenerative changes in the spine and intervertebral discs;
- atherosclerotic vascular disease;
- blurred vision;
- violation of posture;
- soreness in the back of the head;
- deterioration in concentration;
- impaired coordination of movements.
Also, against the background of the development of the disease, various negative changes occur in the work of the organs of sight and hearing.
Complications and consequences
In the absence of timely therapy, VBI can lead to various consequences that can aggravate the course of the disease or cause its chronic form.
Most often, against the background of the course of the disease, ischemic stroke develops. In this case, the violation is accompanied by various neurological disorders.
Also, as a result of pathology, frequent attacks of hemodynamic disturbances may occur. Due to loss of balance and fainting, patients can suffer various injuries, including trauma to internal organs.
It is possible to diagnose the disease and establish the exact cause of its origin using a comprehensive examination. First of all, the patient is examined, complaints are clarified, anamnesis is taken.
Instrumental types of diagnostics:
- UZDGS. The technique allows you to assess the vascular system, to determine the structure of the vessels, from the wall. Also, with the help of the study, it is possible to establish the functional features of the vessels and arteries, to study the blood flow rate, the patency of the arteries.
- X-ray of the spine. The study is carried out in conjunction with functional tests in various positions of the cervical muscles.
- Tomography. Diagnostics is the most informative in terms of the study of ischemic disorders, since it allows you to assess the conditions of all arteries and vessels. Varieties - CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
Also, for a more detailed study, angiography using a contrast agent, radioisotope scintigraphy, EEG, electronystagmography can be prescribed.
Such techniques make it possible to differentiate diseases with other disorders of a neurological origin.
A neurological disorder requires an integrated approach that includes various medications and physiotherapy. In rare cases, with an established diagnosis of VBI, surgery may be required.
Treatment is selected individually on the basis of the studies carried out, the reasons for the development of pathology, as well as the form and nature of its course.
In most cases, therapy is carried out in a hospital setting, since the risks of ischemic stroke are high. In this case, drug treatment is basic and basic.
|Drug group||Name||Features / Features|
|Vascular drugs||Vinpocetine, Pentoxifylline, Cinnarizine||The action of medications is aimed at strengthening blood vessels, expanding the lumen and restoring blood flow.|
|Neuroprotective agents||Glycine, Actovegin, Magnesium sulfate (solution), Cortexin||They have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, protect nerve cells from the negative influence of various factors.|
|Antihypertensive drugs||Captopril, Enalapril||The funds help to reduce and normalize blood pressure.|
|Antiplatelet agents (anticoagulants)||Clopidogrel, Egithromb, Troken, Heparin||They are prescribed to restore the rheological functions of the blood.|
|NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)||Acetylsalicylic acid, Aertal, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen||They are used as a symptomatic treatment for headaches.|
|Sedatives, antidepressants||Valerian, Amitriptyline, Fevarin||Reduces the level of stress and anxiety, normalizes the central nervous system.|
Also, drugs are used that eliminate dizziness, nausea and vomiting - Betagistin, Diazepam, Domperidone.
The selection of funds is carried out individually by the treating specialist, taking into account many different factors.
Surgical interventions are carried out in difficult cases and in the absence of the effect of drug therapy. Operations in this area are considered the most difficult, therefore, they are performed only if there are strict indications.
Types of interventions:
- Endarterectomy - removal of areas affected by atherosclerosis.
- Microdiscectomy - removal of the affected intervertebral disc.
- Nucleoplasty - surgical removal of the nucleus pulposus.
- Osteophyte resection - removal of bone growths formed in the area of the vertebrae.
- Angioplasty is a procedure that allows you to install a special device (stent) that can expand the lumen of blood vessels.
If possible, the specialist selects minimally invasive treatment methods.
Experimental treatment involves the use of biologically active molecules that act to restore blood flow. Stem cell therapy can also be given.
Recently, various robotic technologies have begun to be used to help the patient monitor his own condition. The techniques are considered effective and promising, since they allow you to restore the lost motor and cognitive abilities.
Physiotherapy is prescribed as an auxiliary treatment.
The most effective of them are the following techniques:
- Hyperbaric oxygenation is a procedure performed under conditions of high oxygen pressure in air.
- Impact with impulse currents - the use of a high-frequency current of a low discharge.
- Magnetic laser therapy is a combined treatment that includes the use of a laser and low-intensity magnetic radiation.
Each of the procedures has its own contraindications, therefore, before carrying out them, a mandatory consultation with a doctor is required.
VBI is a diagnosis in neurology that requires compulsory classical treatment with medications. However, in some cases, such treatment can be carried out in conjunction with alternative therapy.
It should be borne in mind that the use of homeopathic medicines should be agreed with the treating specialist, since their effectiveness has not been proven by clinical trials.
The selection of funds is taking into account the cause of the development of the disease. Thus, with the development of osteochondrosis, Traumeel C is often prescribed. The drug helps to reduce pain, eliminate inflammation, and restore the affected intervertebral discs.
The product is available in various dosage forms - drops, solution, tablets.
To eliminate dizziness, "Edas-138" can be used. It is produced in the form of drops for oral administration.
In atherosclerotic lesions, "Dihydroquercetin" is prescribed. To improve blood circulation, preparations made on the basis of ginkgo biloba (Bilobil) can be used.
It is recommended to use various vitamin complexes (Bilberry Forte) as auxiliary agents.
Traditional methods of therapy are used only with the permission of the attending physician and only as an auxiliary treatment. Before using the products, you must make sure that there are no allergies to them.
Vitamin C helps thin the blood and prevents blood clots. It is recommended to follow a diet that includes the intake of foods rich in this vitamin.
These products include currant berries, lemon, kiwi, sea buckthorn, strawberries, raspberries, cranberries.
A tincture should be prepared from the garlic.
- Take 3 heads of garlic and grind.
- Leave the mixture in a cool dark place for 3 days.
- Squeeze out the juice.
- Add freshly squeezed lemon juice to it in the same amount and mix.
It is recommended to take the remedy for 1 tbsp. before bedtime. The mixture itself should be refrigerated.
This tool is recommended for use to reduce the rate of blood clotting.
- Take exactly 0.5 kg of horse chestnut seeds and grind it along with the peel.
- Pour a mass of 1.5 liters of vodka or alcohol and send to infuse for 7 days.
- Strain and take 1 tsp. half an hour before meals 3 times a day.
The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the disease.
Recipes for hypertensive patients
VBI is a diagnosis in neurology, which is characterized by the presence of additional problems with the vascular system, including increased blood pressure.
In patients with high blood pressure, it is recommended to use folk remedies with extreme caution, as they can dramatically reduce blood pressure.
- Take 20 g of lemon balm and 40 g of corn silk. Mix the ingredients together and add a little lemon juice. The mixture is poured with 1 liter of boiling water and insist 1 tsp. Take ½ tbsp. half an hour after meals 3 times a day. Use the remedy for the next 7 days, after which you need to take a break. Then they take it again for a week. A total of 3 courses are required.
- Take the following ingredients in equal amounts: corn silk, rue, mint and lemon balm. Mix everything thoroughly and transfer to a suitable container. 1 tbsp pour the mixture with 1 tbsp. boiling water and insist for half an hour. Use 1/3 tbsp. before eating. The duration of treatment is 1 month.
In chronic forms of the disease, it is recommended to undergo preventive treatment with these funds several times a year.
These methods of treatment should be used with extreme caution and only on the advice of the attending physician. The most effective remedy for vasodilatation is a tincture made from hawthorn.
- Take 20 g of hawthorn fruit and pour 1 tbsp. boiling water.
- Put the mixture in a water bath and simmer for 5 minutes.
- Remove from heat and let it brew.
Take the remedy every day for half an hour before meals, 1 tbsp. 3 times a day. An infusion of a mixture of various herbs can also be used.
To prepare it you will need:
- pharmaceutical camomile;
- Birch buds;
- St. John's wort;
Take a dry mixture of each of the plants in equal amounts and mix thoroughly. From the resulting mass, take 1 tablespoon and pour ½ liter of boiling water. Let it brew for half an hour. The infusion is divided into 2 equal doses. Use the remedy 2 times a day before meals (morning and evening) for 30 minutes. before meals.
At the first signs of VBI, you should contact your doctor who will help you make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the most appropriate and effective treatment. It is not recommended to self-medicate a neurological disorder, as this can only lead to a worsening of the condition.
Video about VBN
Malysheva about vertebrobasilar insufficiency: