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Immunological blood test. Decoding

Content

  1. Indications for research
  2. Frequent infections
  3. Lack of therapeutic effect
  4. Unreasonable increase in temperature
  5. Swollen lymph nodes
  6. Recurrent dermatological diseases
  7. Complex of common symptoms
  8. Preparation for analysis
  9. Analysis
  10. Decoding the results
  11. T-lymphocytes
  12. T-helpers
  13. T-cytotoxic lymphocytes
  14. B-lymphocytes
  15. Natural cells "killer"
  16. Immunoglobulin IgA
  17. Immunoglobulin IgM
  18. Immunoglobulin IgG
  19. Immunoglobulins of group E and D
  20. Video about immunological blood test

Immunological blood test - This is one of the methods of laboratory analysis that allows you to assess the general state of the human immune system, the level of its tension at the time of diagnosis of the body. This examination method displays a quantitative indicator and functional activity of cells responsible for counteracting the invasion of infectious microorganisms, as well as free radicals.

Timely implementation of an immunological study with its further decoding allows you to detect immunodeficiency states of the body, hematological pathologies, diseases with a chronic course of inflammatory process.

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Indications for research

An immunological blood test is prescribed by a hematologist, infectious disease specialist, surgeon, therapist or pediatrician (if the child is undergoing examination). The specialist who appointed the delivery of this analysis can decipher the examination results.

Indications for this diagnostic method depend on the symptoms of the disease state of the body, which were detected during the initial examination of the patient. The use of an immunological study is advisable in situations where the doctor has reasonable suspicions that the patient's immune system does not perform its functions, or that an increased load.

Frequent infections

Too frequent occurrence of inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract with the development of acute infectious process is a sign that the human immune system has a low functional activity. Adults who are within 12 months. they get sick about 3-4 times for 2-3 weeks, suffer from high body temperature and are forced to stay in bed, they must undergo an immunological blood test.

In this case, there is a high degree of probability that the cells of the immune system of these individuals are not able to provide rapid counteracting bacterial, viral or fungal microorganisms, stopping them even at the stage of penetration into organism.

Lack of therapeutic effect

An indication for an immunological study is the lack of a therapeutic effect in patients who are undergoing a course of complex therapy for an infectious disease with an acute or chronic form currents. In a person with preserved functions of the immune system, the correct use of medications allows you to maintain cells of immunity, accelerates the process of destruction of pathogens with the further onset of an early recovery.

In patients with dysfunctional disorders in the immune system, the use of drugs may not provide the desired therapeutic effect. In the presence of such a clinic, the patient needs a high-quality immunological study. In this case, the possible presence of primary or secondary immunodeficiency caused by concomitant diseases of the blood or internal organs is not excluded. In conditions of an acute infectious process, delay in performing an immunological study is life-threatening for the patient.

Unreasonable increase in temperature

In most healthy people, the body temperature is within 36.6 degrees Celsius with minor deviations. A sudden increase in this indicator to 37.3-37.7 degrees is a sign that external or internal factors are acting on the human immune system, which create an additional load.

Immunological blood test. Decoding

Such reactions of the body, accompanied by low-grade body temperature without obvious signs of an inflammatory disease, are the basis for performing immunological research with the study of the functional activity of the cells of the patient's immune system, the presence of specific antibodies to certain pathogens of infectious diseases.

Swollen lymph nodes

An immunological study of blood (decoding the analysis takes no more than 1 hour) allows you to determine the general state of the patient's immune system. An asymptomatic increase in the size of the lymph nodes indicates that there is a focus of chronic infection in the human body. Too weak immunity is not able to provide proper resistance to pathogenic microflora.

In this regard, a certain number of infectious microorganisms are maintained in the patient's blood, which provoke local inflammatory processes. An immunological study makes it possible to establish the cause of the partial inactivity of lymphocytes in conditions of an infectious invasion.

Recurrent dermatological diseases

Performing a detailed immunological blood test with determining the quantitative composition of leukocyte cells groups and antibodies are indicated for children, adult men and women who are diagnosed with one or more skin diseases. At the same time, special attention is paid to patients with dermatological diseases, which are accompanied by the formation of purulent abscesses, open wounds and necrosis of epithelial tissues.

In most cases, in patients of this category, the protective functions of the immune system are weakened so much that they are not able to resist the simplest microorganisms. Immunological research allows you to confirm or deny the fact of an immunodeficiency state, as well as to select effective methods of further therapy.

Complex of common symptoms

An immunological study is indicated for patients who experience the following symptoms daily for a long period of time:

  • constant sleepiness;
  • decreased ability to work;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • decline in physical strength.Immunological blood test. Decoding

The above signs of weakened immunity may be present without the presence of other symptoms of acute or chronic illness. At the same time, the human body always remains vulnerable to most strains of infectious microorganisms.

Preparation for analysis

An immunological study of blood (decoding of the test results is performed in a private clinic or in a public hospital) is carried out only after the patient observes a number of rules. The table below provides step-by-step instructions for preparing the body before submitting biological material for laboratory analysis.

Step-by-step instruction Patient preparatory steps
Step 1. Digestive system preparation Blood for the determination of the functional state of the immune system is donated strictly on an empty stomach. The last meal by the patient should take place no later than 8-12 hours before the appointed time for sampling the biological material. Otherwise, the results of the immunological study may be distorted.
Step 2. Compliance with the drinking regime. Before donating blood, it is allowed to drink only plain water. Do not drink carbonated drinks or mineral water.
Step 3. Creation of a comfortable environment. 2-3 days before the appointed date of the immunological blood test, the patient must protect his nervous system from stress and psycho-emotional stress. You should refrain from performing heavy physical labor. During this period of preparation, sports are contraindicated. Stress for the nervous system or fatigue of the musculoskeletal system cause a short-term decrease in the protective functions of the immune system. In this regard, the result of the analysis may not be objective.
Step 4. Refusal from alcoholic beverages. It is prohibited to consume any type of alcohol 24 hours before donating blood.

Compliance with the above rules of preparation before taking blood for immunological research allows you to get the most reliable result of laboratory diagnostics.

Analysis

Immunological study of blood (decoding of the analysis displays the level of physiological activity of cells the patient's immune system) is an important method for diagnosing hematological malignant diseases origin.

This examination of the immune system is carried out as follows:

  1. The patient goes to the manipulation room of a public hospital or private diagnostic center, and then sits down on the couch.
  2. The right or left upper limb of the subject is fixed on the surface of the table for blood collection.
  3. Using a disposable sterile syringe, the nurse performs an ulnar vein puncture. The injection site is pretreated with an antiseptic agent in the form of an ethyl alcohol solution.
  4. A collection of 2-5 ml of venous blood is carried out.
  5. The collected biological material is immediately transferred to a sterile laboratory for further diagnostics.Immunological blood test. Decoding

Immunological blood tests are performed using high-precision medical equipment. For the most reliable determination of the numerical indicator of cells of the leukocyte group, antibodies, sensitive to infectious microorganisms, allergens, oncological neoplasms, use the flow-through technology cytometry.

After 2-3 days, the patient receives a ready-made written opinion on the functional state of his immune system. This document may already contain a decoding of the examination results, or these actions are performed by the attending hematologist, therapist, allergist, infectious disease specialist. The average cost of an immunological study in a private clinic is 6500 rubles.

Decoding the results

The method of immunological research allows you to determine the concentration of the main populations of cells of the lymphocyte group as accurately as possible.

Immunological blood test. Decoding
Immunological blood test is normal

In order to independently decipher the results of this diagnosis, it is necessary to have information about the functional purpose of different types of lymphocytes.

T-lymphocytes

In children, adult men and women who do not have acute and chronic diseases accompanied by an inflammatory process, the level of T-lymphocytes in the body remains within normal limits. This is an average of 1200 to 3000 cells per 1 μL of blood.

Exceeding these indicators is possible in the following cases:

  • there are foci of an acute or chronic infectious process in the tissues, with which the cells of the immune system are not able to cope on their own;
  • imbalance of sex hormones;
  • long-term drug therapy, the side effects of which cause an increase in the level of T-lymphocytes;
  • depletion of the body due to intense physical exertion;
  • the state of pregnancy;
  • development of hematological oncology in the form of T-cell leukemia.

The fall in the level of T-lymphocytes below the physiological norm occurs in the following cases:

  • a state of primary or secondary immunodeficiency;
  • cirrhosis of the liver, which is caused by chronic alcohol intoxication of the body;
  • autoimmune pathologies (most diseases of this group have an inborn etiology);
  • liver tissue carcinoma;
  • regular intake of medications with immunosuppressive properties.Immunological blood test. Decoding

Violation of the level of T-lymphocytes in the direction of their decrease or increase causes serious disturbances in the work of the patient's immune system. Elimination of the main cause causing the imbalance of these cells allows you to restore the full functioning of the immune system.

T-helpers

An increase in the concentration of cells of the immune system of this species indicates the following health problems:

  • autoimmune tissue damage;
  • violation of the balance of sex hormones;
  • infection of the body with bacteria, viruses, fungi;
  • intoxication with beryllium salts;
  • specific T-cell infections.

Too low concentration of T-helper cells in the blood occurs in the presence of the following diseases of the body:

  • secondary immunodeficiency;
  • chronic alcoholism with destruction of liver tissue;
  • long-term use of steroid drugs.

The physiological norm of cells of the lymphocytic group of T-helpers is 570-1100 per 1 μl of blood. Any deviations from these values ​​become the cause of the pathological state of the body.

T-cytotoxic lymphocytes

Immunological blood test (decoding of laboratory results is necessary to select an adequate therapy regimen) includes determining the level of T-cytotoxic lymphocytes. In healthy people, the norm of these cells of the immune system is in the range of 950-1800 cells per 1 μL of blood.Immunological blood test. Decoding

Exceeding the indicated values ​​is possible in the presence of the following diseases:

  • infection with viral infections;
  • development of T-cell lymphosis;
  • the consequences of strong anesthesia;
  • acute stage of an allergic reaction;
  • autoimmune damage to the body's own tissues.

A decrease in the concentration of T-cytotoxic lymphocytes in the blood occurs in patients who take drugs with immunosuppressive properties

B-lymphocytes

In healthy men and women with normal functions of the immune system, the concentration of B-lymphocytes in the blood is 150-400 per 1 μl.

Exceeding this indicator occurs under the influence of the following factors:

  • B-cell lymphoma;
  • a state of stress;
  • autoimmune damage to body tissues;
  • prolonged contact with formaldehyde.

A decrease in the level of B-lymphocytes in a blood test is possible in conditions of hyporeactivity of the immune system, when these cells are redirected by the body to the foci of acute or chronic inflammation.

Natural cells "killer"

Normal values ​​of natural killer cells are 200-420 per 1 μl of blood.

Exceeding these indicators is observed in the following clinical cases:

  • restoration of the patient's body after a previously transferred viral hepatitis of strains B and C;
  • autoimmune damage to one's own tissues;
  • the presence of malignant tumors in the body;
  • the state of pregnancy;
  • cirrhosis of liver tissue caused by alcohol abuse.Immunological blood test. Decoding

A decrease in the physiologically normal level of natural killer cells involved in an adequate immune response occurs in the following cases:

  • smoking;
  • therapy with steroid drugs and medications that suppress the functions of the immune system;
  • infection with infectious microorganisms.

In medical practice, there are cases when a decrease in the indicator of natural killer cells is manifested in patients with the initial stage of autoimmune tissue pathology.

Conducting an immunological study allows you to determine not only the numerical and qualitative indicator of the subpopulation of cells of the lymphocytic group, but also displays the indicator of immunoglobulins. These are antibodies that are responsible for neutralizing toxic substances and pathogens of infectious diseases. In the process of performing this analysis, the fact of the presence or absence of immunoglobulins of categories A, M and G is confirmed, since they are the most important in terms of diagnosing diseases of the body and pathological conditions of the immune systems.

Immunoglobulin IgA

Antibodies of this group are responsible for maintaining physiologically normal immunity of all mucous membranes of the body.

An excess of IgA immunoglobulin values ​​is observed in patients who have the following health problems:

  • liver tissue pathology;
  • impaired renal function;
  • inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract and respiratory system;
  • skin diseases accompanied by an inflammatory process.

An elevated level of IgA immunoglobulins is a typical clinical picture for people who abuse alcohol for a long period of time.

Immunoglobulin IgM

IgM antibodies begin to be actively produced by the human immune system as a protective reaction during the development of any acute or chronic disease of an infectious nature. A similar result of an immunological study is observed after infection with bacterial, viral or fungal microorganisms. An increased level of immunoglobulin IgM also occurs in patients with severe liver pathologies.

Immunoglobulin IgG

Antibodies of this group are considered the most common and often found in the blood of most inhabitants of the world. Immunological blood test. DecodingIgG immunoglobulins are diagnosed in people whose body has encountered an infectious invasion. Antibodies of this class are responsible for neutralizing the pathogenic properties of toxins produced by bacterial microorganisms. It is the IgG immunoglobulins that ensure the preservation of long-term immunity after a person's contact with infectious microflora. In people with pathologies of the immune system, antibodies of this category are not produced, or their production is at a critically low level.

Immunoglobulins of group E and D

Antibodies of this group are found in the results of immunological studies of patients whose bodies are infected with helminths. Category E and D immunoglobulins are also found in people with atopic allergies. In order to determine the sensitivity of the patient's body to certain factors that provoke allergies, additional blood tests are performed.

Immunological research is an informative method of laboratory diagnostics that allows you to determine the functional state of the human immune system. The patient's venous blood is used as a biological material for examination. The diagnostic results become known after 2-3 days. The analysis is deciphered by a hematologist, infectious disease specialist, oncologist or therapist, depending on the additional symptoms of the disease present in the patient. Based on the results of the examination, measures are taken to draw up an adequate therapy regimen.

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