- Mechanism of action of chondroprotectors for joints
- Has the effectiveness of chondroprotectors been proven in the treatment of joint pathologies?
- Indications for use for joints
- Classification of chondroprotectors
- Classification by main active ingredient
- Chondroprotectors of natural origin
- Chondroitin based
- Glucosamine based
- Hyaluronic acid based
- 1st, 2nd and 3rd generation drugs
- By release form
- Joint Treatment Powders
- Chondroprotectors in injections
- Features of the use of chondroprotectors
- Side effects and overdose, precautions and special instructions
- The best drugs in the group
- Ointments and gels
- Oral powders
- Video about chondroprotectors
Chondroprotectors are a group of drugs, used in the treatment of degenerative-dystrophic changes in the cartilage tissue of the joints. The mechanism of action of medicines is due to the active ingredients included in the composition.
Mechanism of action of chondroprotectors for joints
When using chondroitin, the following goals are achieved:
- the development of the necessary structural components involved in the construction of cartilage tissue - collagen compounds, hyaluronic acid, proteoglycans, glucosamines;
- an increase in the amount of intra-articular fluid;
- pronounced anti-inflammatory effect;
- slowing down degenerative-dystrophic changes in the area of cartilage tissue.
Medicines made on the basis of glucosamine are used to prevent the development of disorders in the cartilage caused by various negative factors (internal and external). In this case, the funds also contribute to the development of the main components that make up the cartilage tissue. The drugs fight the external signs of pathologies and have a pronounced decongestant and analgesic effect.
Combined preparations based on several active ingredients have a more pronounced and complex therapeutic effect. Such funds are used for serious disorders, as well as as a prophylaxis for the development of degenerative-dystrophic disorders in the cartilage.
Has the effectiveness of chondroprotectors been proven in the treatment of joint pathologies?
There is no evidence-based scientific basis for the effectiveness of the use of chondroprotectors for arthrosis or osteochondrosis, since such tests have not been carried out.
However, drugs can be used as part of a comprehensive treatment or as a means of eliminating negative symptoms associated with the development of degenerative-dystrophic disorders in cartilage tissues joints. This group of medicines is not able to completely get rid of diseases, since most of the violations are associated with irreversible consequences caused by age-related changes.
In some cases, the drugs had a pronounced therapeutic effect. Experts attribute this to the fact that not all representatives of the drug group are able to deal with signs of cartilage pathology. It is assumed that clinical trials and studies will be carried out on the most effective means in the near future.
Indications for use for joints
Chondroprotective drugs for joints are widely used in orthopedic practice and can be used both as an independent means of treatment and as part of complex therapy.
- degenerative and dystrophic disorders occurring in the articular system (osteoarthritis);
- inflammatory processes in the area of muscle tendons;
- spine diseases (osteochondrosis);
- research or rehabilitation after surgical operations;
- periodontal disease;
- trauma and damage (complex therapy).
Medicines should only be used if indicated.
There are some restrictions on the prescription of drugs, which are due to the individual characteristics of the patient's body or the action of active ingredients.
- intolerance to the components;
- period of pregnancy;
- bronchial asthma;
- violation of amino acid metabolism (phenylketonuria);
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, proceeding in severe or chronic form - gastritis, ulcerative lesions of the stomach and duodenum, pancreatitis, colitis, various forms of hepatitis;
- failure of the kidneys and liver;
- the presence of malignant tumors;
- children and adolescents (each product has its own age limit).
Due to the presence of restrictions, preliminary diagnostics and consultation with a specialist are required, which will eliminate the presence of these contraindications.
Classification of chondroprotectors
The whole group is subdivided into several main subgroups depending on the composition, form of release or other distinctive characteristics of the drugs. This or that remedy is selected individually by the treating specialist, taking into account the type of violation, the severity of its course, the area of damage and the patient's physiology.
Classification by main active ingredient
According to the active ingredient, the drug group is divided into 4 subspecies. Each remedy has its own indications and recommendations for the appointment. At the same time, medicines differ not only in composition, but also in the spectrum of action, which must also be taken into account when using them.
Chondroprotectors of natural origin
Medicines of natural origin (animal and plant) belong to the 1st generation drugs. Most of them are made from cartilage or bone tissue of animals - cartilage of calves, minced bone tissue of fish. Also, products are produced based on complex carbohydrates (mucopolysaccharides). Such drugs are produced in the form of injection solutions for intramuscular administration.
Chondroprotective drugs for joints based on chondroitin sulfate have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect and lead to an increase in range of motion (improved joint mobility). They also prevent the destruction of cartilage tissue.
Medicines are available in the form of ointments, oral tablets, intramuscular solutions and are prescribed for increased physical exertion, as well as for patients over 40 years of age. At the same time, drugs are not used in therapy in children under 15 years of age, as well as during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Medicines made from glucosamine are used to accelerate regeneration processes, the formation of a new connective tissue, increasing the production of synovial fluid, as well as to eliminate inflammatory reactions and pain syndrome.
Other beneficial properties:
- improving the condition of joints and cartilage tissue;
- restoration of the skin;
- helps to retain moisture in the cartilage;
- exhibits high antioxidant and immunostimulating properties;
- has a strengthening effect on ligaments and tendons.
Products are made from the cartilage of fish (shark, shrimp) or exotic plants (South American liana, incense tree). Medicines are produced in the form of ointments, tablets or injection solutions for intramuscular administration.
Hyaluronic acid based
Hyaluronic acid is an essential component of almost all organs and tissues. It takes part in maintaining the normal level of moisture in the joint cavity and increases its stability during physical activity. Preparations based on this ingredient are used to eliminate inflammation and pain in the joint area. Medicines are used in the treatment of arthrosis of the knee joint. They are produced in the form of an injection solution.
1st, 2nd and 3rd generation drugs
Chondroprotective drugs are also subdivided based on generation or composition. When choosing, the degree of joint damage and the presence of concomitant symptoms are taken into account.
- 1st generation. These products are made on the basis of plant or animal components.
- 2nd generation. The composition of medicines includes one active ingredient - glucosamine, chondroitin or hyaluronic acid.
- 3rd generation. This group includes combined funds, which simultaneously include 3 active substances at once.
At the moment, other drugs have been developed that, in addition to the active ingredient, contain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory components. These types of drugs belong to the 4th generation.
By release form
There are several forms of drug release. They are selected individually, based on the shape, severity and localization of the pathological process.
In most cases, tablets are prescribed for mild to moderate arthrosis. The drugs contain either glucosamine or chondroitin. In some countries, combination products are produced that contain both ingredients at once.
A distinctive feature of this form of release is the presence of side effects, developing, as a rule, from the gastrointestinal tract:
- nausea and vomiting;
- pain syndrome;
- uncomfortable sensations;
- excessive gassing;
Tablets are not prescribed for relapses and exacerbations of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
They are used for local treatment of joints. They have fewer side effects and develop much less frequently. Funds are prescribed for exacerbated pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, since they have a local effect, and are used only for mild joint lesions. They do not have any therapeutic effect in relation to severe forms (for example, 3rd degree gonarthrosis). Medicines are produced based on glucosamine, chondroitin, or include both components at once.
Joint Treatment Powders
Oral powders, like tablets, are made from various components and can be combined. They have similar side effects and are used for mild to moderate severity of the disorder.
The funds are ineffective in severe forms of diseases and are often used as part of complex therapy (simultaneously with topical drugs).
Chondroprotectors in injections
Injection solutions are subdivided according to the place of their injection - inside the joint or intramuscularly. The first method is the most effective, but it requires careful preparation and careful use. It is recommended to inject the medicine with the use of ultrasound diagnostics, since there is a high probability that the solution will be injected past the required area. This can lead to the development of various complications. Intramuscular injections do not require special skills and can be carried out independently at home. Such injections are made on the basis of one active substance.
Features of the use of chondroprotectors
Chondroprotective drugs for joints are used according to the recommendations of a specialist and only after the diagnosis has been clarified (after research). Tablets and powders are taken orally in courses. At the same time, each separately taken medication has its own characteristics of admission. The duration of therapy can vary from 3 months to six months.
Intramuscular injections are recommended to be administered under the supervision of a physician. When using the solution, it should be borne in mind that the depth of needle insertion should be more than 3 mm, otherwise there are high risks of getting the product into the subcutaneous tissue. Intramuscular preparations are used once a day every day. In this case, the injection site should be alternated. On the first day, an injection is given in the right buttock, on the next - in the left, or vice versa.
Intra-articular injections are administered exclusively into the joint cavity by the attending specialist. Injections are not used for small joints. It is recommended to use products based on hyaluronic acid. The course of therapy is 5 injections. In this case, before injections, it is required to maintain an interval of at least 3-4 days.
Side effects and overdose, precautions and special instructions
With the correct use of drugs, the development of side effects and symptoms of overdose is unlikely, but it can still occur.
- allergic reactions, both local and systemic;
- signs of dyspepsia - discomfort and pain in the epigastric region, nausea and vomiting;
- changes in blood pressure (systematic monitoring is required);
- heart rhythm disorders;
- migraines and dizziness;
- the development of pain and the formation of swelling in the lower extremities.
In the event of these violations, mandatory consultation with a specialist is required. If necessary, symptomatic therapy can be prescribed. In some cases (according to the recommendations of a specialist), treatment may be interrupted until the patient's condition returns to normal.
If it is necessary to use chondroprotectors for bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus or severe renal failure, constant monitoring by the attending physician is required. If the condition worsens, therapy should be discontinued.
In some cases, medications can lead to the development of dizziness, and therefore, it is necessary to refuse or take great care when driving or carrying out work that requires the speed of psychomotor reactions.
The best drugs in the group
Chondroprotective drugs for joints should be selected exclusively by the attending specialist. At the same time, the patient's condition and the effectiveness of previous therapies with one or another agent are assessed.
Each form of release has its own best and most popular representatives, which have a more pronounced therapeutic effect and are recommended by specialists.
The tablets can be prescribed as an adjunct to the main injection therapy.
|Name of the drug||Quantity||Price|
|Artra||30, 60 or 120 pcs.||RUB 900-1900|
|Don||60 or 180 pcs.||RUB 100-3930|
|Teraflex||120 or 200 pcs.||RUB 425-4525|
|Structum||60, 80, 100, 120, 140 or 200 pcs.||RUB 350-2315|
|Chondroxide||30, 50, 60, 90 or 100 pcs.||RUB 340-720|
The duration of therapy is calculated individually or according to the instructions in the instructions.
Ointments and gels
They are prescribed as part of a complex treatment or during physiotherapy.
|Name of the drug||Quantity||Price|
|Mucosat||30 g||RUB 180-760|
|Chondroitin-Akos||30 g||RUB 110-380|
|Teraflex||30, 50 or 100 g||RUB 210-960|
|Chondroxide||30, 40 or 50 g||RUB 110-1135|
|Honda||50 or 100 g||35-500 rub.|
Used in short courses. The funds can be used both in the form of a gel and in the form of a gel.
Powders should not be taken in conjunction with other oral forms of the drug group.
|Name of the drug||Quantity||Price|
|Artrakam||20, 30 pcs.||RUB 800-1310|
|Glucosamine||10, 20 or 30 pcs.||RUB 950-110|
|Don||20 or 30 pcs.||RUB 1110-1600|
|Elbona||5 to 50 pcs.||560-600 rub.|
|Sustagard Artro||5, 10, 20 or 30 pcs.||RUB 100-1175|
Daily dosages are calculated individually, based on the established diagnosis.
Injection solutions are used strictly under the supervision of a physician or in a hospital setting.
|Name of the drug||Number of ampoules||Price|
|Elbona||6 pcs.||RUB 885-1530|
|Sustagard Artro||5 pieces.||RUB 500-1255|
|Alflutol||10 pieces.||1400-4910 rub.|
|Ambene BIO||10 pieces.||1140-2330 rub.|
|Mucosat||5 pieces.||RUB 510-4345|
The treatment regimen for joint disorders using chondroprotectors is developed individually by the attending physician. Before taking this or that drug, you should carefully study the instructions for its use.
Video about chondroprotectors
Chondroprotectors for joints: