1 Medical indications for prescribing procedure
Some patients are panically afraid of traditional gastroscopy or have contraindications to it. In such cases, the doctor prescribes safer methods of gastroscopy without swallowing the probe:
- swallowing of the capsular endoscope;
- virtual colonoscopy( gastroscopy);
- computed tomography;
- X-ray examination;
- electrogastrography, electrogastroenterography.
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These techniques exclude the introduction of the tube into the digestive tract( to check the stomach).Gastroscopy of the stomach without swallowing the probe is based on the examination of the gastrointestinal tract with a capsule with a video camera. This is a one-time endoscopic capsule made of an inactive substance, which is easy to swallow. This procedure is completely safe. The capsule weighs no more than 4 g, has in its arsenal high-grade light, a radio transmitter, batteries, a color camera. The device takes pictures at a rate of 3 fps. Its dimensions do not exceed 11x26 mm.
This procedure is contraindicated in the following patients:
- with pacemakers;
- with presence of intestinal obstruction in the anamnesis;
- to women in the state at any date;
- for children under 12 years.
2 Diagnosis performed
The study in question is performed in the morning on an empty stomach. To perform gastroscopy of the stomach does not require special preparation. The patient drinks a video cassette with water. For 8 hours it passes through the whole gastrointestinal tract due to peristaltic movements, photographing everything. The advantage of this technique is that during these 8 hours the patient can be at work, doing the usual things, excluding hard physical labor. There is no need to stay in the hospital for the time of diagnosis.
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The patient does not feel any discomfort. After this period, the doctor receives pictures, having an opportunity to evaluate them, make an accurate diagnosis. The capsule leaves the patient's body naturally, without causing harm.
The main advantages of this study:
- convenience and ease of use;
- full security;
- high information content;
- repeated analysis of research data;
- virtually no contraindications.
To the faults relate:
- is purely diagnostic procedure;
- impossibility to conduct manipulations during its execution;
- high price.
3 Conducting CT
Computer diagnostics of the digestive system - tomography - a procedure for virtual examination of the body. It is based on the study of organs with the help of X-rays in a tomograph. Principle of conducting: the patient is placed in a tomograph, where he can be irradiated. Before the procedure, the patient is given a tube for perforation - air supply. The presence of dark areas in the image may indicate polyps.
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The device rotates, making slices, transferring information to the monitor as a 3D image. The disadvantage of such a diagnosis can be considered inability to see on the images of seals or changes in tissue of small size.
Contraindications to CT:
- pregnancy of any duration;
- obesity 3 and 4 degrees;
- risk of perforation of the hollow organ during the study;
- significant radiation load( more 20-25 times than X-ray examination).
Such a study helps a doctor only suspect a pathology. To confirm the diagnosis, a gastroscopy or videoscopy is performed.
Preparing for CT procedure:
- in the last days before the study observe a diet;
- is forbidden to drink alcohol, solid food, food, which causes gas formation;
- last meal - for 7 hours before the procedure;
- cleansing enema or taking special medications;
- anesthesia if necessary.
During CT scan the patient lies on his back, he can change his position if necessary. Often, the procedure is done for patients who have previously suffered from gastrointestinal pathologies. With the help of CT scan the stomach is checked in patients older than 50 years.
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4 X-ray examination
The technique is based on the study of contrasted organs with the help of X-ray images. For contrast, barium solution is most often used. This method is painless, but also uninformative in the initial stages of inflammatory processes.
The procedure takes at least 2-4 hours. After it often there is constipation, flatulence, tenderness of the abdomen, vomiting. The procedure is shown in the following cases:
- a sharp decrease in body weight;
- tenderness in the abdomen;
- admixture of blood in the feces, bleeding from the intestine;
- vomiting with blood.
Preparation for the procedure includes:
- a special diet and complete refusal of alcohol for a few days before the procedure;
- preliminary intestinal cleaning and reception of baking soda crystals( if necessary);
- reception of a solution of barium sulphate;
- before the study remove all ornaments;
- frequent change of position during the study.
5 Electrogastrography and electrogastroenterography
With the help of such techniques a doctor can check the stomach for both adults and children. The method is based on the supply and analysis of electrical signals. Special devices record and evaluate the work of organs, similar to how an ECG is recorded and evaluated. The stomach, the intestines at work( digestion of food, its movement) create their own particular rhythm, which is recorded by the apparatus.
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Different organs have their own frequency of work signals. Therefore, different methods evaluate the work of certain organs. Thus, electrogastrography( EGG) determines the work of the stomach based on electrical impulses;electrogastroenterography( EGEG) studies intestinal and stomach motility. Each organ is evaluated separately, connecting to the appropriate apparatus.
The methodology was developed and is widely used in Canada, USA.Recently, it is increasingly being introduced in domestic science. Such a survey is conducted to study the work of the astronauts stomach. But this technique is an additional study. A complete picture of the disease such a procedure will not show. The technique has no contraindications, side effects, it is completely painless.
The procedure is carried out in 2 stages:
- After cleansing enema and fasting.
- After breakfast( tea with a slice of bread).
Duration of the procedure - no more than 2-3 hours. Recording of indicators is carried out by a special device( in the lying position of the patient).
6 Evaluation of the motility of the organ
Electrogastrography is a method of examining the stomach and its motor capacity with the help of an electrogastrograph. This apparatus for recording the frequency of the rhythm of the work of the stomach is attached to the anterior abdominal wall( due to three suckers).
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The opinion of doctors. .. "
The work of the stomach and the rhythm frequency can normally be 3 options:
If the work of the stomach does not correspond to any species, then the pathology of the stomach is developed. Electrogastrography is important for patients with food movement problems. It is she who will be able to identify this kind of pathology, which is the cause of raspiraniya, severity, discomfort and abdominal pain.
Electrogastroenterography is a method for evaluating the motor function of the intestine and stomach. Suckers for the work of the device are placed on the front abdominal cavity or on the hands and feet of the patient( operating mode - Day or Standard).The procedure is also carried out in 2 stages, in the supine position of the patient. Each body has its own standards.
7 Useful recommendations
Among the many techniques for studying the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract in general and the stomach in particular, only traditional gastroscopy and capsular videocopies are among the main methods. They will help the doctor with the final diagnosis, speed up the diagnosis and further treatment. There is no difference in the reliability of these methods, but for each method, different cost and invasiveness are characteristic.
The first option is inexpensive, traditional, but painful. Making yourself swallow a flexible video endoscope hose is not easy. But the doctor can help suppress the gag reflex. For this, local anesthesia of the pharyngeal ring is done, preparations are given to relax the smooth muscles of the esophagus. At the same time, there is a risk of infection through the endoscope with different infections.
The second option is a completely safe alternative to gastroscopy. This method is painless, does not require any preparation and reception of drugs.
The choice of the method for checking the stomach is performed by the doctor taking into account the patient's condition, indications and contraindications to alternative methods of gastroscopy.
- 1 Medical indications for prescribing procedure
- 2 Performing diagnosis
- 3 Conducting CT
- 4 X-ray examination
- 5 Electrogastrography and electrogastroenterography
- 6 Evaluating the motility of the organ
- 7 Useful recommendations
Gastroscopy of the stomach without swallowing the probe is a modern alternative to the traditional method of diagnosing gastrointestinal pathologies. It is carried out using a capsule video camera.