- Body temperature norms in children and adults
- Basal temperature
- In the mouth
- When is 36.9 a normal temperature and when is it not?
- 36.9 in a person with a naturally low temperature
- 36.9 at elevated temperatures by nature
- Types of thermometers and features of temperature measurement
- Possible measurement errors
- Video about body temperature is normal
Still in force, generally accepted healthy person's body temperature standard, equal to 36.6 ° C, was calculated in 1868. German therapist Karl Wunderlich. 36.9 - whether this is a normal indicator depends on individual factors, especially taking into account the + 0.2 ° C correction made by researchers at the University of Maryland (USA).
Body temperature norms in children and adults
The exact meaning has not been established by current medical standards. The generally accepted standard for the temperature index of the human body is the range of 36.2-37.5 ° C.
The exact value is individual and is determined by age, current physiological state of the body, and the measurement area. The average rate is set at 36.8 ° C. The values in the oral cavity, armpit, rectal canal differ by 1.0-1.5 ° C.
To calculate your own baseline, it is recommended that you periodically measure your temperature in a healthy state. The most accurate value of the temperature of internal organs can be obtained by introducing a thermometer into the rectal canal.
In English speaking countries, measurements are taken in the mouth. This is an accurate method, but not applicable for children under 3-4 years of age and patients with mental disorders. The physiological parameter is highly dependent on age.
36.9 - whether this temperature is normal is determined by the current physiological state. Body heating increases with physical exertion, pregnancy, and sexual intercourse.
Hormonal compounds have a pronounced pyrogenic effect. The indicator depends on the parameters of individual thermoregulation, the center of which is located in the hypothalamus.
The conditional age-specific temperature norms when measured in the armpit are shown in the table.
|Infants up to 6 months||37,4|
|3-6 years old||37,0|
|7-65 years old||36,8|
|Over 65 years old||36,3|
By the age of 7, the mechanism of thermal homeostasis, for the work of which the vegetative part of the nervous system and the hypothalamus are responsible, stabilizes. In older people, there is a slight decrease in the temperature indicator.
Measurement in this area of the body is called axillary. This method of taking the body temperature index is widespread. Axillary thermometry is suitable for young children and for patients with rectal diseases.
The approximate holding time of the thermometer in the armpit to obtain a reliable result is 7-10 minutes. A prerequisite is considered to be tight pressing of the thermometer to the surface of the skin.
The axillary method is not applicable for obesity. Lipid deposits serve as a spacer between the thermometer tip and the body. Adipose tissue always has a temperature higher than the surrounding biological structures.
The accuracy of the axillary measurement decreases with excessive sweating, cold baths, or hot baths. This method of measuring body temperature cannot always be trusted due to the large number of factors affecting the reliability of the readings.
The lowest thermal index of the body has an important functional and diagnostic value for women. Basal temperature is not measured when determining general health.
Such a thermometric test is designed to assess the functional parameters of the hormonal system. homeostasis of the female body, an indirect determination of the fertile phase of menstruation, called ovulation cycle.
During this period, an increase in temperature by 0.25-0.5 ° C is noted. Basal thermometry is performed on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, rectal canal or vagina, without getting out of bed after uninterrupted sleep for at least 3-6 hours.
Fluctuations in the indicator occur synchronously with changes in the level of estrogen and progesterone, which have moderate pyrogenic properties. It is not the absolute numerical value that is taken into account, but the difference in the readings before the cycle and after the onset of menstruation.
A temperature of 36.9 ° C or higher is typical for such a physiological process. Whether this value is normal is determined by the thermometric difference, which should be no more than 0.5 ° C.
The basal rate test is a simple and affordable home way to establish the presence of ovulation by increasing the synthesis of sex hormones. This measurement can be used for contraceptive purposes.
In 24 hours before ovulation, the basal temperature decreases slightly, and after the release of the egg it increases by the indicated amount. The pregnancy planning method requires self-discipline, measurement accuracy and good health when taking thermometer readings.
In the mouth
Oral or sublingual body temperature is measured for children from 4 years old. To obtain accurate thermometric data, hold the thermometer in the mouth or under the tongue for 1-5 minutes. depending on the type of device.
The standard value for temperature in this part of the body is set in the range of 36.8-37.3 ° C. For accurate measurement, it is important to follow the correct breathing technique, drawing air through the nose and keeping the lips closed. After drinking a cold or hot drink, you should wait 25-30 minutes.
It is not recommended to measure the temperature in the oral cavity when:
- increased psychomotor agitation;
- runny nose;
- sinus congestion;
- mental disorders;
- neurological pathologies associated with uncontrolled motor activity;
- inflamed adenoids;
Oral thermometry is not performed for inflammatory processes and edema in the oral cavity. Studies by American scientists have shown a higher accuracy of such indications compared to the armpit.
When is 36.9 a normal temperature and when is it not?
The physiological parameter is assessed with reference to an individual standard value. For a child, a temperature of 36.9 ° C is considered normal. In elderly patients, such a value of thermometric data may indicate a sluggish inflammatory or other pathological process.
It is a biological marker reflecting the individual parameters of thermoregulation, the relationship between the thermal energy produced by organic tissues and the environment. The temperature norm for each person depends on numerous reflex stimuli.
Pay attention not to absolute figures, but to fluctuations in thermometric data in a calm state throughout the day. A temperature of 36.9 is not considered very high anyway. It does not pose a clear threat to health in the absence of additional symptoms.
36.9 in a person with a naturally low temperature
According to modern concepts, deviations within 1 degree are not considered abnormal or pathological. Such changes provoke a variety of external factors - natural daily metabolic rhythms, nervous excitement, physical activity.
36.9 - whether this is a normal temperature for a person with a naturally low physiological indicator depends on the current state of the body. In the absence of accompanying symptoms or malaise, a slight increase in the thermometric value can be ignored.
36.9 at elevated temperatures by nature
The indicator is considered a variant of the norm, regardless of the individual body temperature.
A slight decrease in the indicator is caused by:
- natural suppression of the immune system in the evening;
- temporary dysfunction of the thermoregulation center under the influence of exogenous factors;
- Iron-deficiency anemia;
- post-viral asthenia;
- vegetative disorders;
- decrease in the concentration of glucose in the blood.
A decrease in body temperature is characteristic of nervous exhaustion, taking drugs that have a calming, sedative effect or slow down the metabolism.
To exclude pathological processes, you can take a blood test for immunoglobulins or do an extended biochemical hematological test. A decrease in body temperature is characteristic of vegetative-vascular dystonia.
Types of thermometers and features of temperature measurement
Various types of measuring devices are used - from traditional mercury to remote infrared and flexible thermal strips.
Thermometers used to measure body temperature:
- Mercury. They are considered the most accurate. Mercury thermometers are adapted to measure temperature in any way. Among the shortcomings, the measurement time, fragility, and toxicity of mercury vapor are noted for a long time in comparison with other types of thermometers.
- Electronic. The basis of such a thermometer is a thermistor - a metal plate, the resistance of which changes with a decrease or increase in the temperature index. For accurate measurements, close contact with the body surface or oral mucosa is required.
- Thermal stripes. Compact and flexible devices that are easy to use. They are intended for removing the temperature indicator from the surface of the skin. The thickness of such a thermometer does not exceed 1 mm. They have a graduated scale or color zones for low, normal and high temperatures.
- Infrared. The devices are designed for non-contact recording of body temperature. They are effective in a tense epidemiological situation and in relation to infected patients. Thermal radiation from the body is measured. The distance for household appliances is 3-8 cm. The accuracy of infrared thermometers is much lower than that of mercury.
The design of thermal strips, considered the most convenient type of thermometers, is a polymer film. It is covered with a layer of heat-sensitive crystals, the shade of which changes depending on the temperature index.
Electronic thermometers for babies come in the form of a pacifier. There are models with the function of transferring data to a smartphone or PC. The most accurate devices of this type are constructed on the basis of a platinum thermistor.
Possible measurement errors
Distortions in readings are caused by violations of the rules for using the thermometer, which differ for each type of device. Electronic devices have an error correction function implemented in the form of a special scale for interpreting the results.
After purchase, a thermometer of this type should be tested and, if necessary, calibrated. The temperature is measured in a conditionally healthy state to obtain a baseline individual indicator. The error of electronic thermometers is 0.2 ° C.
If the body temperature when measured with a mercury thermometer is 36.9 or any other, the indicator can be trusted. Normal or this value depends on the individual norm. The result is influenced by physical activity, emotional stress, taking a hot bath before the thermometric procedure.
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