- Definition of what it is
- What are
- Causes and processes of formation
- Positive role and impact
- Negative impact and harm
- How to disobey and get rid of
- Stopping the stereotype
- Replacing the stereotype
- Stereotype transformation
- Going beyond the stereotype
- Stereotyping videos
Stereotyping is an act of forming ideas in psychology about any event, people, which transfer to the whole group of similar phenomena or persons. Initially, the word "stereotype" was used to describe a form for printing impressions in a printing house. In 1922 g. American journalist W. Lippmann used it as a scientific concept, understanding by a stereotype an unspecified way of perceiving reality, which gives rise to prejudices.
Definition of what it is
The concept of "stereotype" was developed by many researchers throughout the history of mankind.
The definition developed from characteristics similar in meaning:
- archetype (C.G. Jung);
- delusion (Plato);
- wrong inferences, idols of reason (R. Descartes, F. Bacon);
- prejudices (F. Nietzsche).
In foreign psychology, the study of stereotyping was carried out by M. Horkheimer, T.V. Adorno, V. Duaz. In domestic science, the concept was introduced by P.A. Sorokin, who viewed the stereotype as a stereotyped human behavior. V.A. Yadov described the definition as emotionally colored social images.
Yu.A. Sorokin called the process of communication according to the linguistic models accepted in society a stereotype. According to P.N. Shikhirevu is a primitive, sensually colored set of qualities that biasedly reflects reality. THOSE. Vasilieva, V.S. Ageev, I.S. Cohn defined the stereotype as a way of processing information and a model of actions in different life situations.
V. Doise identified 4 types of stereotypes:
- individual ideas of people about their environment;
- patterns that arise in the process of communication between people;
- collective models that are formed in intergroup communication;
- ideological ideas that appear under the influence of historical events.
Yu.E. Prokhorov viewed the stereotype, on the one hand, as an element that preserves and translates the culture of a given society, and on the other, as an established means of identifying "ours" in a given culture.
Stereotyping is a stereotyped transfer of an image to situations and people. Surface models include beliefs based on a biased assessment of external characteristics. Deep stereotypes in psychology are transmitted in society for years and even centuries. They are formed under the influence of historical events.
It represents stereotypes that are formed in a particular personality. They can either coincide with social stereotypes or contradict them.
Persistent beliefs reflect the actual characteristics of the stereotyped group. The degree of objectivity may vary. There are no absolutely objective stereotypes, since stereotyped images are generalizations, therefore they cannot correspond to real facts.
Here, circumstances and situations are endowed with stereotyped characteristics.
- It always snows in Siberia.
- It's always winter in the North.
- India is dirty and there are many diseases.
This type of stereotyping is based on the idea of the physical image of another person. This is an automatic posture position, plastic walking and poses. It is thanks to this phenomenon that you can recognize your friends from afar.
Negative stereotypes are what is considered to be a stereotype in society. They are used as a means to insult other people. An example of a negative stereotype is "all blondes are stupid." So a girl who graduated from university with honors may be ridiculed when applying for a job and not get the desired position because of the stereotype.
Positive stereotypes are presented as a compliment. For example, the common pattern is "All Asians are smart" or "All Asians are good at mathematics." Despite the first positive impression, such a judgment can be harmful. According to it, a small child of Asian descent may feel inappropriate or defective if they have learning difficulties.
The essence of this type is in the reaction of specific people to judgments. Researchers Lepore and Brown found that people with a high level of stereotyping respond more vividly to neutral phrases and adjust them to previously learned patterns.
Accurate stereotypes reflect objective reality, although from the outside they may seem inappropriate. For example, older people do move more slowly than younger people.
This is the name for stereotyped judgments that can be interpreted in two ways. For example, mentally unhealthy people are dangerous to others. This is not an absolutely accurate statement, but it is not a lie either. Here we can say that in fact only people with certain mental illnesses can threaten the safety of others, but only in the absence of medical care.
Social stereotypes are such images that are endowed with all people whom the person does not recognize as members of his group.
This type of stereotypes includes:
- ethnic - by race and nationality;
- gender - by gender;
- confessional - in relation to people of different religions;
- age - by age (most often they concern children, adolescents and the elderly);
- aesthetic - in appearance, beauty, style;
- role-playing - on the interaction between people (relations between husband and wife, student and teacher);
- household - on the organization of the economy and leisure.
Social templates are rather false. They distort people's ideas, bring discord in relationships.
- A man should support his family, and a woman should take care of the household.
- A woman who is building a career is unhappy.
- A woman is obliged to give birth to a child.
- Men are naturally polygamous.
- Women don't drive well.
- All Asians look the same.
- All Germans are punctual.
- All English people love tea.
- All Jews are mercantile.
- Russians love to drink.
- All old people are grumpy.
- All young people know nothing about life.
Causes and processes of formation
Stereotyping in psychology is the formation of judgments through the interaction of elements of the psyche. Stereotypes appear when referring to individual or group life experiences. The formation of stereotypes occurs in the second signaling system and includes 3 phases.
|Initial||Separate visual and speech stimuli act on the signaling system and interact with verbal and visual images in the higher parts of the brain. As a result, a holistic idea arises, which consists of formed forms of consciousness and associations.|
|Search reaction phase||The incoming images are correlated with the existing representations and are recognized as the original ones. In this case, the saved model ceases to be blurred, but acquires a specific character, is filled with details.|
|Recognition||The stored information for the stereotype is contained in the form of an association. When in contact with a stimulus, parts of perception are excited and generate various images, feelings, symbols, from which a stereotype is created.|
W. Quasthoff noted that the functions of stereotypes are necessary for the normal functioning of the psyche and consciousness - social existence, internal psychological stabilization, information processing. In the process of stereotype formation, such mental actions as attribution, categorization, selective attention, the formation of concepts, and assessment are involved.
The stereotype is based on 3 components:
- cognitive - a person is aware of information about objects;
- affective - expresses evaluative feelings about objects;
- social - shows a program of action in relation to objects.
Stereotypes arise for various reasons. The main one is protecting the brain from information overload. The mechanism of stereotyping is based on simplifying the thought process. The psyche does not every time react to stimuli with all the fullness of experiences, but transfers them to already mastered models. The constant flow of new information loads the brain, so the body independently classifies the incoming stimuli, adjusting them to familiar images.
So the process of cognition does not exceed the ordinary level, relying on everyday experience, formed through the generalization of ideas. At the same time, the surrounding world itself contains similar, monotonous, repetitive elements to which a person reacts with stereotyped actions. Rejection of stereotyping would lead to a constant work of the psyche to differentiate and classify information. So template thinking simplifies the knowledge of the world and facilitates the work of thinking.
Stereotypes are learned through inculturation and socialization. The templates themselves are part of the culture. A person remembers many groups of stereotypes from childhood, takes them out of the family and environment. The images are fixed at the age of 12-30, after which they practically do not change. As a result, the ready-made models reflect not only the understanding of their own group, but also the idea of other groups about their own.
The formation of images occurs in communication with loved ones who are most often present in life. They are family, friends, teachers, colleagues. But sometimes stereotyped thinking is also manifested in private contacts. For example, if a person is cheated on the market by a seller of a certain nationality, then in the end the buyer will transfer his judgment to all persons of this nationality.
Also, the media are involved in assimilating stereotypes, since for many people they are an authority. Media opinions often crowd out personal beliefs.
This happens for several reasons:
- If a person does not have sufficient knowledge about the subject of discussion, then he relies on information from news or newspapers, without subjecting it to critical assessment.
- Source status plays an important role in the stereotyping process. The judgment of a well-known public figure or politician is considered more weighty.
- Reliance on the opinion of the media indirectly removes responsibility for the decisions made. A person accepts the point of view of an authoritative source, considers it correct and fair.
Positive role and impact
Stereotyping is, in psychology, stable emotionally colored representations in a certain group of people. These behavioral patterns have different impacts on people's lives. The positive effect of stereotypes is to free the psyche from performing various processes aimed at scanning the environment.
This is how consciousness directs its work towards solving other problems. A person learns most of the stereotypes in childhood. Therefore, templates are used to distinguish bad from good, to assess the safety of a space.
Negative impact and harm
Stereotyping is in psychology a form of perception of people or objects. The negative role of the stereotype is that such perceptions are often based on false subjective information. Templates are used to mislead or manipulate people. Stereotypes bring disagreements into communication, give rise to conflicts.
False beliefs violate the understanding of correct life guidelines, set a person up against others on the basis of their gender, race, appearance. Instead of finding similarities, stereotypes focus on differences, divide society into “us” and “foes”.
In addition, negative stereotypes are often the source of stigma, discrimination and xenophobia. Such attitudes arise in people who use templates out of fear of losing their social identity. Through negativism and intolerance, they strengthen their position in the group they occupy and feel psychological comfort.
How to disobey and get rid of
Stereotyping is a formed image in psychology that manifests itself in response to a specific stimulus. To get rid of the influence of stereotypes, it is necessary to carry out conscious work on yourself. It is necessary to understand exactly which patterns and views are useful and accepted, and which are negative. Necessary stereotypes are considered that a person has formed on his own experience, without relying on the opinion of society. They can also include social images, but those that the individual passed through himself.
To do this, it is necessary to write down the most famous representations and read them several times. There is an emotional response to every phrase. It is sensually colored sensations that show the attitude towards the stereotype. There are also several techniques for getting rid of stereotyping.
Stopping the stereotype
The mechanism of this method is based on stopping structures that support the stereotype, for example, stable images and reactions, emotional and bodily vibrations. From the very beginning, it is necessary to track such psychophysical reactions, consider them separately, highlight the most striking. Therefore, the first step is observation and analysis.
For example, a stereotyped action is scratching the back of the head in response to a stimulus. Here, a stop is considered to be directed attention to the movement of the hand, which destroys the sequence of the pattern's manifestation. A separate part of this process can be called an attempt to stop the internal dialogue at the moment of the strongest resistance.
Replacing the stereotype
Consists of replacing one view with another. As in the previous example, getting rid of the stereotype occurs according to a monotonous pattern - at the moment of the reaction. In this case, the action must be replaced by a manifestation similar in form.
The stereotyped action changes through the transformation of the way of its manifestation. In this method, it is necessary to consciously seize the initiative at the time of the disclosure of structures, and then endow the established elements with new properties. Using a physical stereotype as an example, to transform scratching the back of the head into performing another action not related to the body.
Going beyond the stereotype
It differs from the previous methods in that it does not use a direct impact on the structure of the stereotype.
The method consists of 3 stages:
- Awareness of one of the constituent parts of the stereotype.
- Awareness of all pattern structures.
- Awareness of the integrity of the parts of the stereotype at the moment of manifestation.
Here, the reaction to a stimulus in the form of scratching the occiput is experienced before the motor manifestation of the template. A person is aware of the playing of a stereotype, but does not show it physically, as a result of which the action fading occurs.
There are also the following ways of working with stereotypes in interaction with other people:
- awareness - naming a pattern of behavior;
- finding out the reasons for the behavior - pronouncing the objective and subjective reasons for using the template;
- discussion - proof of unproductive use of the template and communication problems due to this;
- analysis - discussion of past experience, on the basis of which a stereotype emerged;
- reassessment - analysis of the reasons for using the model and assessment of its value;
- informing - giving full information about the judgment;
- projection screen - ignoring the stereotype;
- switching attention - shifting attention to other stimuli;
- congruence - playing along until the influence of the stereotype ends;
- copying - repetition of the partner's behavior (sometimes it is necessary for him to notice it, and sometimes not);
- external dissociation - the separation of a person from his judgment, communication only with the part that interests the interlocutor.
Stereotyping is an important process that saves the efforts of the brain and relieves the psyche. Stereotypes make it possible to navigate the world, to understand the values of a particular society. At the same time, ideas in psychology sometimes carry a negative message and are perceived as insults. Therefore, you need to understand which patterns are part of the worldview, and use them with caution so as not to offend the interlocutor.