Lower myocardial infarction (also called basal) is rare in the elderly. More often - in the age group from 40 to 60 years. This condition is caused by loss of tissue cells set lower heart wall due to the fact that because coronary arteries they get enough oxygen.
The prognosis of the pathology and can be advantageous. It all depends on the overall health of the patient and how timely medical assistance. Treat the disease in a hospital because it, especially in the acute phase can be life-threatening. A necessary criterion for the end of the main course of treatment is to control the condition, as the likelihood of recurrence is high.
What are the reasons
Examination (including ECG) can show where the pathology develops, whether it will be zadnebazalny myocardial infarction or other of its kind. According to the results of the expert can draw conclusions and that because of what happened to a heart attack.
The main causes of disease - a narrowing of blood vessels and activate the process of formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Own tissues do not get enough oxygen, the process of dying begins. Particularly active, he comes under the influence of enhanced physical activity, if a person does not revise their way of life.
The situation is exacerbated when there is a rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and coronary artery occlusion. In this state, for 15-20 minutes dies a large area of the heart tissue.
developments contribute to the following factors:
- bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse);
- improper feeding, when the diet contained excessive amounts of animal fat (that cholesterol in blood vessels, accelerating the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, and other unpleasant consequences);
- endocrine disorders and diabetes;
- excess weight;
- arterial hypertension;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- coronary heart disease.
Do not underestimate, and a genetic predisposition to such diseases.
Recent studies have shown that there are a number of genes, which in the presence of trigger factors can cause a heart attack. So people who have a family history of the disease or diseases of veins, should be particularly careful.
Distinctive signs and symptoms
Diagnose myocardial bottom can only specialist, and based on both clinical and instrumental diagnostics.
The degree of severity of symptoms depends on how deeply hurt as a result of oxygen starvation of the heart tissue. Large-focal myocardial appears brighter symptoms. The prognosis for him less favorable, but the results of the ECG all clearly visible. This diagnostic will show abnormal tooth or QZ, Q, which and will make the appropriate conclusion.
The patient feels deterioration, although it may not always understand that this is due to a heart attack or heart muscle. There may be a lot of pain on the left side behind the sternum, sometimes they give up in his left hand. Thus discomfort grow itself attack lasts 15 to 30 minutes.
Sometimes the pain in the back of the heart is so strong that the person loses consciousness. Most of these attacks occur at night or early in the morning.
In such cases, taking nitroglycerin. After that, the symptoms become less pronounced, but still does not disappear completely.
Along with the pain may increase pressure in the heart. Patients complain of shortness of breath, sweating. In addition, they have a sense of fear, although apparently there is no reason for it.
In some cases, a violation of blood flow seen with atypical symptoms. For example, sometimes an impression of bouts of gastritis. That is the pain felt in the epigastric region, anterior abdominal wall strain.
There is another version of the atypical course of the disease that resembles asthma. Such cases of cardiac necrosis does not cause severe pain, but there are cough and sensation of fullness in the chest. Can worsen sleep, there are anxiety and depression. But all this is more characteristic of older patients.
When these symptoms, immediately seek a doctor who will diagnose and make sure that we are talking about the heart attack, rather than angina or other disorders of the heart.
If there is a suspicion that this zadnebazalny myocardial infarction, the need to immediately call an ambulance. Until the arrival of the patient doctors should be laid so that his head was raised. If a person suffers from shortness of breath, it is better to sit down.
It is recommended to put a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue (the drug is also available in the form of spray, and this when first aid is considered to be more convenient).
Nitroglycerin is usually can not completely stop the pain. Therefore, many try to immediately give a second tablet. This is wrong, since the interval between doses of the drug should be at least 15 minutes. And Nitroglycerin should be given mandatory, especially in dyspnea, as it is this symptom and it eliminates.
In future myocardial infarction bottom wall treated in a hospital. In most cases, conservative therapy administered to a patient. Thus use drugs such as thrombolytics that dissolve blood clots occlude the artery. The most effective means of this group is considered to ticlopidine, but sometimes prescribe aspirin and to prevent recurrences.
Furthermore, doctors recommend anticoagulant activity reducing the blood clotting (e.g., bishydroxycoumarin), and beta-blockers to prevent arrhythmia and reduce necrosis zone (Atenolol). To eliminate the pain may be prescribed analgesics, and for the recovery of heart rate is used Amiodarone.
If conservative treatment does not produce results, then used surgical techniques, including coronary artery bypass surgery. Such a decision may be made only by the attending physician.
People after myocardial infarction is assigned a health food. The ration administered more potassium decreases the amount of fat and bad cholesterol.