Myocardial infarction - a dangerous disorder in which the patient requires urgent medical assistance. You need to know the symptoms and etiology of heart attack at a young age to prevent manifestations of the disease.
Why suffer from young people
Areas of necrosis of the heart muscle resulting from circulatory disorders, disrupting cardiovascular system and threatens human life. According to statistics, in the attacks of myocardial infarction at a young age for not less than 14% of cases. The reasons for the origin of this disease are different:
- atherosclerosis, resulting from cholesterol deposits on the walls of blood vessels;
- lack of physical activity;
- bad habits: smoking, alcohol abuse;
- hereditary factor;
- bleeding disorder;
- inflammation in the blood vessels;
- stressful situations;
- injuries and physical stress.
Young age is no guarantee that a heart attack will not happen. For the disease is characterized by several stages, of which the typical symptoms include:
- Predinfarktnoe condition occurs within a few days or months. The patient marks tachycardia, pain in the heart. The process of thrombus formation and reduce the permeability of blood in the arteries.
- Acute period lasts from half an hour to 4 hours. There are strong pains in the chest, extending to the left arm or shoulder. This symptom is maintained even after the administration of nitroglycerine. The patient is observed pale skin, fever, poor circulation. Necrosis region is formed.
- In the acute stage lasts about 2 weeks, the myocardial tissue is melted. The symptoms of the patient are less pronounced: a feeling of mild pain in the chest, shortness of breath, headache, involuntary muscle contractions and feeling cold.
- In the subacute period lasting up to 2 months, the patient zarubtsovyvaetsya muscle tissue in the infarct zone and the symptoms gradually disappear.
- Postinfarction phase, during which the myocardium adapts to changes, characterized by the final disappearance of symptoms. There comes a period of convalescence.
Symptoms of heart attack in women are slightly different from resulting in young men:
- toothache and acute pain in the neck, as well as the localization of pain in the left upper part of the body: neck, shoulder, arm;
- a young woman produced the hormone estrogen, which is due to cholesterol protects blood vessels and prevents heart attacks development;
- occurrence of symptoms of dyspnea and bronchospasm in the rest position.
Different typical and atypical symptoms of heart attack:
- pain, extending to the lower jaw, left-pinkie thoracic or cervical spine section;
- irregular heartbeat;
- abdominal pain;
- circulatory disorders in which there are dizziness, drop in blood pressure, cardiogenic shock against the backdrop of severe heart failure;
- respiratory disorder characterized by a weak pulse, cough, lack of oxygen;
- occurrence of edema;
- a syndrome in which a person does not feel pain symptoms - it bothers the sternum discomfort and weakness.
In the event of an acute stage may appear several characteristics atypical form, which complicates the diagnosis. To confirm a heart attack requires a blood test - this method of diagnosis is highly informative. Changes in the biochemistry associated with the presence of inflammatory processes.
How to treat
It is important not to miss the symptoms of heart attack, as competent actions in the first hours of the attack will save the life of a man - treatment must begin before the arrival of the doctor. First aid is as follows:
- patient to place horizontally on a solid surface, lifting head;
- ensure the access of oxygen, throwing open the window;
- unbutton the top button on the patient's clothes, loosen the tie or belt.
Of the drugs will need:
- arterial nitroglycerin at a top pressure of not less than 100;
- crushed aspirin to thin the blood and restoring blood supply to the tissues;
- anxiety medications: valerian, Corvalolum etc .;
- analgesics with strong pains.
Drug treatment of myocardial infarction in young people takes place in a hospital. The main purpose - treatment of acute heart failure, before which it is recommended to ECG - a basic procedure to detect the presence of problems in the structure of the heart as well as blood tests and urine.
Treatment is individual and depends on several factors:
- lesion size;
- stage of the disease;
In therapy using various groups of drugs:
- statins - eliminate cholesterol seals that are a frequent cause of circulatory diseases;
- Beta-blockers - lower blood pressure and soothe arrhythmia;
- antiplatelet agents - inhibit platelet adhesion and thrombus formation;
- ACE inhibitors - support blood vessels;
- nitropreparatov - eliminate pain and dilates blood vessels;
- angiotensin receptor blockers - reduce the lesion of the heart muscle.
For young patients need rehabilitation to recover and return to normal life.