- How does a person's bladder volume change with age?
- Bladder volume norms
- Among women
- In men
- How quickly the bladder fills, what determines the speed
- How is the volume determined by ultrasound
- Possible reasons for the increase and decrease in volume
- How to increase bladder volume
- How to reduce the volume of an organ
- Bladder Videos
The bladder is an organ of the lower the human urinary system, which is responsible for the accumulation and excretion of urine. The volume of the organ in women and men is different and is measured using ultrasound diagnostics.
How does a person's bladder volume change with age?
Only the ureter does not change with age. However, the bladder and urethra undergo some transformation. The older the person, the less urine the bladder can hold. This also slows down the rate of excretion of urine from the organ.
The walls of the bladder periodically contract, which is necessary for its full work and the processes associated with the formation and excretion of urine. Some parts of the brain and spinal cord are responsible for the contractile ability. However, with age, these contractions become irregular, which is why many older people experience urinary incontinence.
The organ itself also changes and becomes smaller. The walls and tissues of the bladder lose their elasticity and tone, which leads to the accumulation of residual urine and difficulty in its excretion.
The urethra is also shortened due to the loss of elasticity, which leads to urinary incontinence. The process is due to the fact that the violation affects the sphincter, which loses its ability to close tightly.
Bladder volume norms
The volume of the bladder differs between women and men. This is due to the peculiarities of the physiology and structure of the urinary system.
In women, the norms for the volume of urea vary from 250 to 550 ml. These indicators depend on the woman's age, pregnancy, previous interventions, as well as neoplasms located next to the organ.
The wall thickness ranges from 2 to 4 mm.
The volume of the urinary organ in men is slightly larger than in women and can reach from 350 to 750 ml.
This factor also depends on the age of the man, his anatomical features and the presence of other diseases associated with damage to the urinary system.
In case of deviations from the norm, additional research methods are required, which will allow you to accurately diagnose the cause and choose the most effective treatment.
How quickly the bladder fills, what determines the speed
The volume of a person's bladder affects how quickly the organ fills. It depends on how often a person will go to the toilet, which can lead to some problems in everyday life.
The bladder fills at an average rate of 2 to 5 hours and is about 50 ml / h.
- Slow filling - less than 10 ml / min.
- Average speed - 10 to 100 ml / min.
- Fast filling - over 100 ml / min.
It is believed that the first urge to urinate occurs when about 250 ml of urine reaches in the bladder. The number of visits to the toilet varies from 4 to 7 times.
After emptying the bladder, about 50 ml of urine remains in it.
The filling speed depends on various factors. It can be both the individual characteristics of the human body and the presence of internal diseases or injuries and deformations.
Also, the filling rate can be an age or gender factor. In men and children, the volume of the bladder is less. Therefore, it fills up faster.
How is the volume determined by ultrasound
With the help of ultrasound, the anatomical structure and function of the bladder is assessed. This allows you to identify at the initial stages the development of various deviations and diseases in the organ.
First of all, the thickness and structure of the urea walls are determined. The first indicator should vary within 2-4 mm. The contours of the organs should be even.
The study itself is carried out with a full bladder. To achieve this, it is necessary to refrain from going to the toilet 2 hours before the procedure and drink at least 1.5-2 liters of liquid.
- The patient is placed on a couch and placed on his side or lying on his back.
- The specialist applies a special contact gel to the bladder area, which allows better visualization of the organ structures.
- With the help of a sensor, the doctor guides over the marked area in different projections.
- The monitor receives graphic information about the organ.
After the procedure, the patient is released for bowel movement to examine the amount and volume of urine remaining. The sequence of steps is the same as for the assessment of a full bladder.
In the future, the specialist writes down the data and makes a diagnosis indicating the size of the organ and its other anatomical features.
Possible reasons for the increase and decrease in volume
The volume of the urinary organ in humans can change for 2 main reasons - functional or organic. At the same time, a change in the size of the bladder is more common in women.
In the first case, changes occur as a result of disturbances in the work of nerve endings.. The condition is quite common and is otherwise referred to as hyperactivity.
In this case, a person has frequent urge to urinate.
The main provoking factors for the development of functional disorders are the following pathologies:
- infectious diseases;
- damage to the prostate gland;
- gynecological diseases.
Disorders that have an organic nature of origin, in most cases, arise against the background of inflammatory processes. As a result, the organ is replaced by connective tissue, which leads to its reduction.
Inflammatory diseases can be caused by the development of cystitis, tuberculosis, or schistosomiasis.
Possible causes of an enlarged bladder:
- the presence of stones in the ureter or directly in the organ itself;
- acute urinary retention (ishuria);
- neoplasms in the prostate area;
- polyps on the organ.
The provoking factors that can lead to an increase in the volume of the bladder include the following violations:
- endocrine diseases;
- inflammation in the uterine appendages (salpingo-oophoritis);
- neoplasms in the brain (malignant or benign);
- multiple sclerosis;
- dysfunction of the prostate.
To determine the exact cause of the development of pathology, it is necessary to undergo a number of additional studies from other specialists, in addition to the gynecologist (urologist).
Thus, you should additionally consult a therapist, oncologist, neurologist and endocrinologist.
How to increase bladder volume
The volume of the human bladder can be increased several times, which is a predisposition not only to the development of problems with urination, but it can also lead to the occurrence of other disorders in the urinary system. The condition is often associated with an overactive bladder (OAB) and occurs in 17% of the total population.
The violation requires a lifestyle correction, since it brings not only physiological discomfort, but also can cause the development of other diseases of the urinary system, as well as somatic problems.
|Drinking less fluid||Water should be drunk only when thirst is present.
It is better to refrain from drinking any liquid at night.
It is recommended to take medications with one sip of water.
|Emptying the bladder||It is recommended to visit the toilet every 1-2 hours (more often if necessary).
The urine should be emptied as much as possible.
For urinary problems, the abdominal muscles should be used.
In case of difficulties, you must try to urinate, and then leave the toilet for 5-10 minutes. and urinate again
The exercise must be repeated 10 times (one approach). 7-10 approaches should be performed per day.
When urging, it is recommended to perform the exercise 4-5 times
|Dieting||From the diet, it is necessary to completely or partially exclude foods that irritate the bladder. These are bananas, cranberries, plums, pineapple, citrus fruits, chili peppers, milk, cheese, pickles and marinades. You should also refrain from alcoholic and carbonated drinks, coffee|
|Keeping a diary||It is necessary to record all indicators during urination in the journal - the amount of urine excreted, the frequency of visits and urges.
A special container (urine bag) should be used to determine the amount of urine.
The observation period is 3 days.
The journal must be handed over to a specialist during a scheduled visit.
Botulinum neuroprotein type A (Botox, Lantox) has also shown its effectiveness, which leads to suppression of the release of acetylcholine and causes relaxation of the detrusor due to nerve atrophy endings. The drugs should be administered in the area of the urinary organ wall.
Therapy with one of the means must be carried out every six months to a year, since the atrophic effect on the nerve endings is reversible.
If necessary (as an adjunct therapy), m-cholinergic receptor blockers may be prescribed. Reception of funds leads to a decrease in the tone of the detrusor and the frequency of going to the toilet, and also cause an increase in the urinary organ.
In stressful forms of disturbance, special gels are injected (by injection), which form an additional volume in the submucosal region of the urethra. The procedure is absolutely safe and is performed using local anesthesia. The whole process takes no more than 10 minutes.
- Bladder plastic surgery. The procedure is prescribed in the presence of a sclerosed lesion. The technique is aimed at creating a special patch that increases the volume of the organ. In the presence of complications or other disorders, partial or complete removal of the organ can be performed, followed by the creation of an area that replaces the bladder (enterocystoplasty).
- Intersection of nerve fibers. This method allows you to reduce the frequency of urges and increase the storage capacity of the organ. The treatment is considered absolutely safe and highly effective.
- Hydrodilation. This technique allows you to artificially fill the bladder with fluid without the use of surgical instruments. If the procedure is carried out correctly, it is possible to achieve a temporary decrease in the tone of the detrusor. At the same time, the procedure also allows the most accurate assessment of the volume of urea.
Also, as an additional treatment, electrophoresis can be performed using various drugs - antispasmodics, anticholinergics.
No less effective is the use of paraffin applications and treatment with ultrasonic waves.
How to reduce the volume of an organ
The volume of the human bladder can be increased for various internal reasons. However, in most cases, the pathology is a congenital abnormality in the chromosome number.
As a rule, a large size of the bladder occurs in the fetus even during pregnancy. The disorder is rare and is associated with abnormalities in the development of the urinary system. Pathology requires surgical intervention.
For this, the following types of operations are performed:
- Vesico-amniotic bypass surgery - installation of a special device that allows the child's urine to be removed into the amniotic fluid.
- Stent placement - is carried out only with hereditary urethral stenosis.
- Vesicostomy - creating a hole in the organ, which allows urine to pass.
- Valve removal, located in the region of the posterior urethra - the operation is carried out at the 20-24th week of pregnancy and allows you to prevent a further increase in the volume of the organ.
In addition, a catheter is installed, which allows the urine to be removed without hindrance.
After the surgical operation, further treatment is prescribed, which is selected individually and depends on the reasons that caused the development of the pathology. In this case, drug therapy is prescribed as an adjunct and is not able to cope with the violation on its own.
If a person has problems with urination and the development of discomfort, it is advisable to contact a specialist for a bladder diagnosis. This will allow you to determine the volume of the organ and identify various diseases in the early stages.