Contents of the page
- 1 Why arthritis of the knee arises?
- 2 Differences in knee arthritis from arthrosis
- 3 Forms and types
- 4 Main symptoms - photo
- 5 Methods of treatment
- 6 Physiotherapy procedures
- 7 Treatment of knee arthritis with folk remedies
- 8 Feedback on the treatment of
Arthritis of the knee or gonarthritis is a constantly progressive inflammatorya process that affects the joints. It is manifested by discomfort and pain syndrome during movement. The disease is chronic, hard to treat, it can persecute people for years.
Gonarthritis is a widespread ailment, according to WHO, more than 50 million people worldwide suffer from its manifestations. In recent years, the disease is rapidly "younger", which is a serious medical problem, since in the absence of timely treatment, the ailment is threatened with disability.
Inflammatory joint disease is diagnosed in different age groups. Arthritis of the knee joint in children is not uncommon, it can develop against a background of weakened immunity and frequent colds. In general, gonarthritis affects people between the ages of 30 and 50 more often, and this infirmity is more affected by women. We learn all about the causes that contribute to the development of the disease, the characteristic symptoms and methods of treating arthritis.
Why arthritis of the knee arises?
Arthritis of the knee joint is preceded by a wide variety of factors. Among the main causes of the disease can be called:
- Postponed infectious diseases;
- Metabolic disorders;
- Weakened immunity;
- Hereditary predisposition;
- Age Factor;
- Deterioration of the circulatory system;
- Autoimmune and systemic diseases;
- Consequences of injury or hypothermia;
- Professional factor;Excess weight.
The development of gonarthritis can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle, or vice versa, the profession associated with constant standing on the legs. Arthritis of the knee joint can affect sellers, hairdressers, professional athletes, movers, because their work is associated with a constant load on the joints of the lower extremities.
Extra weight also has a very negative effect on the joints, provoking their premature abrasion and deformation under the influence of a high load. Another important factor is the person's age, and the associated degenerative changes in the joints. Not without reason in the elderly, the disease is diagnosed in 80% of patients.
According to the international classification of diseases, arthritis of the knee joint is marked with the code μb 10. This classification facilitates the work of medical personnel, since the corresponding code is indicated in the patient's personal card.
Differences in knee arthritis from arthrosis
Arthrosis and arthritis are often confused, since both ailments affect joints and have many common features. However, there are significant differences between them.
With arthritis, the inflammatory process spreads quickly and affects the entire body, affecting not only different groups of joints, but also internal organs. With arthrosis, the inflammatory process is local in nature and affects only the cartilaginous tissue of the joints.
Arthrosis affects mainly elderly people( after 60 years), whereas arthritis occurs in representatives of different age groups and is diagnosed even in children.
The pain symptom with these diseases also has a different character. When arthritis pain persists constantly, does not disappear even during sleep and increases in the morning. With arthrosis, pain occurs during movement and eventually becomes stronger with the slightest physical exertion.
Another significant difference is that with arthritis the mobility of the joint is limited in all directions, whereas for arthrosis only in one. In addition, arthrosis is often accompanied by crunching or characteristic snapping in the affected joint.
Forms and Views
All forms of the disease are divided into 2 main groups according to the form of the current:
The following types of arthritis are distinguished by the nature of the progression of the disease:
- Rheumatoid arthritis of the knee joint - is the most common type of disease. Often develops against the background of autoimmune diseases and staphylococcal involvement of the joint. Often, the first signs of arthritis appear after the transferred angina, with violations of the thyroid gland or with a tendency to allergic reactions.
- Arthritis-arthrosis of the knee joint( deforming arthritis) occurs against the background of degenerative changes in muscles, bones and inflammatory processes in the tissues. As a result, there are multiple destructive changes in the cartilage tissue of the knee at the molecular level, which leads to thinning and destruction of the cartilage. Similar changes affect bone tissues, as a result of which they are deformed, covered with growths and densities.
- Posttraumatic arthritis. Develops as a result of a suffered knee injury, which disrupted the functioning of the articular cartilage. Over time, this condition is complicated by inflammation of surrounding tissues and growth of bone osteophytes.
- Reactive knee arthritis provokes infectious diseases of the reproductive, urinary system or food poisoning. Such ailments contribute to the penetration of infection in the tissues of the knee joint.
In addition, there are many more varieties of gonarthritis, each of which develops due to certain provocative reasons. This age, gouty, juvenile, infectious, etc. However, the types of disease have a common symptom - it is a painful feeling that persecute the patient both in motion and at rest. Let us dwell on the characteristic symptoms of gonarthritis.
Main symptoms - photos of
All types of arthritis have a number of characteristic common symptoms. These include:
- Pain sensations in the knee that can be sharp, burning, or persistent, aching. In this case, the pain increases with physical activity and while walking.
- Morning stiffness, when there is a feeling of "jamming" the joint and the patient is difficult to unbend his leg in the knee.
- Swelling and swelling of the knee with visible reddening and inflammation of surrounding tissues.
- In advanced cases, there is a partial loss of motor function of the joint, its deformation and thinning of the bones.
In rheumatoid arthritis, both knee joints are usually affected, the disease is accompanied by increased fatigue and subfebrile fever, when the elevated temperature, which indicates the presence of an inflammatory process, lasts for a long time. With the long course of the disease and the lack of adequate treatment, complications develop( Baker's cysts, impaired mobility of tendons, muscle atrophy).The most serious consequences are damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes.
In arthritis of the knee, which are infectious in nature, the temperature can rise to 39 ° C, with marked swelling of the knee and migraine pain in the joints of the whole body.
The degree of arthritis of the knee joint
The main manifestations of arthritis largely depend on the degree of development of the disease.
- At the first ( initial) stage, the pain is unstable, wavy. Unpleasant sensations usually intensify in the morning hours or when the weather changes. At this stage, even radiography can not give a reliable result, since the changes are still not noticeable. When a close examination of the X-ray image, an experienced specialist can notice an unexplained thinning of the bone and some narrowing of the lumen of the joint space. The mobility of the affected organ is limited to a small extent.
- At the second stage of the disease, pathological changes become more pronounced, puffiness and pain syndrome increase, and limitations of joint mobility become noticeable. The picture clearly shows erosion and drying of the hyaline cartilage, markedly thickening of the capsule and a pronounced narrowing of the lumen of the joint space. The patient complains of a constant sensation of compression and tension in the affected area, rapid fatigue, pain that increases after physical exertion.
- The third degree of is already a chronic form of the disease, which occurs with pronounced signs of deformity of the knee joint and the growth of muscular dystrophy. Radiographic examination reveals the proliferation of bone osteophytes and connective tissue, the destruction of articular cartilage tissues and the deposition of salts in the joint bag. At this stage, the patient feels severe pain, marks the joint stiffness that restricts movement, and a feeling of stiffness in the knee. The painful syndrome is pronounced, has a constant character and is enhanced by changing weather conditions. There is swelling and swelling of the leg in the knee area, surrounding tissues can be inflamed and hyperemic.
The main danger of gonarthritis is the transition of the disease to a chronic stage. In this case, persistent relapse significantly worsens the quality of life and threatens the defeat of other groups of joints. So, arthritis is often not limited to one knee joint and after a while captures the second knee.
Infectious arthritis can cause bursitis, synovitis and other pathologies of the musculoskeletal system. But rheumatoid arthritis is especially dangerous, which in a short time can pass to other groups of joints( ulnar, phalangeal, radiocarpal).Begin treatment should be the first dysfunctional symptoms, otherwise the lack of timely medical care can lead to serious complications and cause disability of the patient.
Methods of treatment
Than to treat an arthritis of a knee joint, the doctor will define, on the basis of results of diagnostic inspection. The treatment regimen is made taking into account a variety of arthritis, the severity of the disease and the general condition of the patient. Complex therapy of gonarthritis is based on the use of medications, methods of physiotherapy, therapeutic gymnastics and adjusting the way of life. In severe cases, at the last stage of the disease resort to surgical intervention and replacement of the destroyed knee joint.
From medicines, the following drugs are included in the complex treatment:
- Antibiotics( azithromycin, lincomycin, doxycilin), if arthrosis is of an infectious nature.
- Antifungal drugs( nystatin, terbinafine) if joint damage is caused by mycosis.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs( diclofenac, ketoprofen, ketonal), helping to anesthetize, eliminate unpleasant symptoms and alleviate the condition of the patient.
- Injections of glucocorticosteroids( diprospan, celeston, methyl prednisolone).The injections are made into the joint cavity or the inflamed area is cut off around the knee to relieve acute pain.
- Vitamin complexes and preparations of calcium and vitamin D( calcium D3 Nycomed, Vitrum, Complivit) are prescribed as supporting measures for rheumatoid arthritis and for the prevention of osteoporosis.
- Immunosuppressors( methotrexate, cyclosporine).This group of drugs is used if arthritis develops as a result of autoimmune processes in the body.
In addition to systemic drugs, local topical products are widely used. These are ointments, gels and creams:
- Indomethacin, etc.
Also read reviews about the Arthropant cream from joint pain.
Procedures for physiotherapy
The therapy of gonarthritis was well recommended by physiotherapeutic and hardware methods of treatment. Among them:
- Laser therapy, infrared irradiation, ultrasound. These methods are used to stop the inflammatory process in the joint area.
- Hydrotherapy, massage, electrostimulation is recommended to improve blood circulation and eliminate muscle atrophy.
- Plasmapheresis - the procedure is prescribed for infectious and rheumatoid arthritis of the knee joint.
- Cryotherapy is indicated for the activation of tissue processes of metabolism and elimination of pain sensations.
To facilitate the course of chronic arthritis will help special simple exercises that are recommended to perform at home. Of course, this should be done during periods of remission.
Exercise the first : sitting on a chair, alternately shake your foot until you feel a slight fatigue.
Exercise second : While in the same position( sitting on a chair), alternately raise the leg parallel to the floor and hold it for 5 seconds. Repeat 10 times for each leg.
Exercise third : from the "lying on the back" position, alternately raise the legs at an angle to the floor, to a height of 20-30 cm and hold the weight for a few seconds.
Exercise fourth : lying on the floor, simulating a bike ride for a few minutes.
An important role in the therapy process is given to proper nutrition. Patients are advised to abandon refined food, canned foods, smoked foods, salty and spicy dishes, strong tea, coffee and completely eliminate alcohol. In the diet should be as many fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals, fermented milk products. It is recommended to include marine fish, dietary meat, liver, bread with bran in the menu.
In advanced cases, when other methods of treatment do not yield results, resort to surgical methods of treatment. There are several basic options for surgical intervention:
- Aspiration( pumping) of the synovial fluid from the joint cavity is performed with purulent arthritis.
- Endoprosthetics are performed to replace a deformed knee joint with an artificial prosthesis.
- Arthroscopy - this kind of intervention is used to remove salt deposits in the knee joint.
Treatment of arthritis of the knee joint folk remedies
Traditional medicine offers many time-tested recipes that, when gonarthritis, will be a good addition to the main treatment:
- Oat decoction of .A glass of whole grains of oats is poured with 1 liter of water and cooked on low heat for 30 minutes. Cool, filter, and take 100 ml once a day. This will help to remove toxins and improve the condition of the patient with infectious arthritis.
- Application with mustard .Prepare a mixture of 50 g of mustard powder, equal amounts of melted paraffin and salt( 100 g).The composition is applied to the diseased knee, fixed with a bandage and left overnight. The procedure will help to remove inflammation and reduce pain.
- Compress of radish juice .Black radish is cleaned, crushed in a blender, squeezed juice. Combine 2 tbsp.l.juice with 1 tbsp.l.liquid lime honey, moisten in this mixture a napkin and apply it to the diseased knee. Compress last half an hour.
Treatment of arthritis of the knee joint folk remedies should be carried out after consultation with the attending physician, it will help to avoid unwanted complications.
Video about the symptoms and treatment of arthritis of the knee joint from Bubnovsky
Video review of various treatments for arthritis of the knee
Feedback on the treatment
Review No. 1
Arthritis is a very serious disease. For many years, I have been suffering from pain in my knee. Than only it was not treated, has tried set of preparations, but completely it is not possible to recover and the illness periodically reminds of itself.
Recently, with the appearance of pain, I use Viprosal ointment, it quickly suppresses unpleasant sensations and thanks to this drug I can live and move normally.
For several years I suffer from rheumatoid arthritis of the knee joint. The disease progresses, despite the fact that every year I go through a course of treatment. I take medicines, drink vitamin complexes, even injected into my knee.
There are improvements, but they are short-lived, soon the disease returns with pain. Recently, I'm very hard to move around, my leg almost stopped expanding. Apparently, we will have to decide on an operation to replace the joint.