Urticaria is one of the forms of dermatoses accompanied by a nettle( urticaric) rash on the mucous and cutaneous surface of a person due to the toxic-allergic genesis.
A clear example of what looks like urticaria in adults - photo number 1.
Photos of other manifestations of the disease, see below, in the section "Types and Symptoms".
- 1 Reasons for the appearance of urticaria
- 2 Symptoms of urticaria in adults, photos
- 2.1 Is hives dangerous?
- 3 Treatment of urticaria in adults
- 3.1 Possible self-treatment?
- 3.2 Need a diet for hives?
- 4 Measures for the prevention of urticaria
- 5 Urticaria for the ICD 10
Causes of urticaria
Provoke the development of urticaria external and internal factors caused by:
- exposure to physical and mechanical injuries;
- effect of chemical and pharmacological agents;
- by the action of allergenic foods;
- internal pathological processes - in the GIT system, in the functional of the nervous system and liver;
- by vegetative disorders;
The cause of urticaria is the process of biomultification of chemical compounds in the body, similar in their actions to the action of histamines, which cause increased permeability of the vascular walls and telangiectasia( expansion) of the capillaries on the skin. This causes the development of acute puffiness in the papillate layer of the dermis( skin) and the formation of bubble rashes on it.
Allergens are partially digested protein foods that have not lost their allergenic properties, accumulation of toxins in the intestine from it or those present in poor-quality food. Accumulation of harmful substances in the body and the manifestation of urticaria contribute to:
- various diseases of the digestive tract( colitis);
- functional renal pathology;
- streptococcal and staphylococcal infection;
- active substances of bloodsucking parasites and insects;
Symptoms of urticaria in adults, photos
Clinically, the signs and symptoms of urticaria manifest themselves in a variety of variations. The most famous:
Acute urticaria - in the overwhelming majority is manifested, due to the body's response to food or drug antigens - due to blood transfusion( plasma transfusion), the introduction of antigens by vaccination.
Symptoms of such urticaria in adults are very itchy, swollen blisters above the skin, of any size and shape. Their discs are surrounded by indistinct areas of scarlet color with glossy shine in the center.
Eruptions are able to unite into single foci, forming a fairly large area of skin lesion. The process is accompanied by a series of general disorders - an irregular increase in temperature, a manifestation of nettle fever( severe chills), intestinal disorders.
Characteristic localization of a bubble rash - the skin of the trunk, arms, legs and buttocks. It is possible to localize on the mucous membrane of the lips, palate, tongue, nasopharynx and in the larynx, which disrupts breathing and swallowing functions. Allergic rashes last for one, two hours. The disease lasts several days.
Due to mechanical irritation of the skin develops an acute process of atopic form of urticaria. Characterized by the linear form of rashes and the absence of itching symptoms. It appears as a consequence of dermographism, due to defensive functions of fatty subcutaneous tissue.
Angioedema Urticaria( edema Quincke) is a sudden development of a giant allergic process with limited localization on the dermal surface or fatty subcutaneous tissue of the cheeks, eyelids or lips.
The affected skin surface acquires an elastic dense structure of pale, pink, or red hue. Subjective sensations are not manifested, sometimes there may be burning and a slight itch.
The duration of puffiness is small( up to 2-3 hours), but it can last up to two, three days. Relapse is not excluded. Sometimes, angiootec( angioedema) is considered a manifestation of normal urticaria.
But, if the development of edema occurs in the region of the pharynx - it is possible to develop a narrowing of its lumen( stenosis), which provokes suffocation( asphyxia).
Puffiness in the eye zone threatens to shift the eyeball and impair visual functions. In this condition, medical assistance is urgently needed.
Chronic urticaria of recurrent nature - provoked by long-term influence of chronic infection:
- in ENT diseases;
- salpingo-oophoritis( infectious inflammatory process in the appendages of the uterus);
- when decaying hard tooth tissues( caries);
- due to impaired liver function, GIT system, etc.
The clinical course is paroxysmal, with the appearance of minor focal areas of the rash that can be localized on different parts of the body. Accompanied by:
- asthenia( general weakness) increase in temperature;
- head and articular pain;
- intolerable itchy symptoms;
- with insomnia and neurotic disorders.
In the blood test, there is a decrease in platelets and a quantitative increase in eosinophils.
Urticaria persistent papular - in which the urticaria rash, which is permanently on the skin surface, passes into a nodular( papular) stage of development. In this case, the process of excessive thickening of the horny epidermal layer( keratosis) and dark velvety seals( acanthosis) join the resistant limited dermal edema.
Knot formations of dark brown color are localized in folds of limbs folds. Most often the female half of man is sick. World medical luminaries consider this kind of urticaria, a clinical symptom of Prurigus, which is commonly called scrapie.
Phyto urticaria( sunny) - is a part of polymorphic dermatoses. Develops against a background of renal pathologies, an increase in reactive sensitivity to ultraviolet, or against the background of porphyritis( a violation of the pigmentation process).
The skin is not covered with sun-protective skin. Typical seasonality of manifestations, with high activity of ultraviolet rays - in spring or summer. Prolonged solar irradiation of an organism can provoke:
- sharp circulatory disturbances in tissues and internal organs;
- impairment of respiratory function;
- inadequate cardiac activity.
Is a hive dangerous?
In the absence of a severe allergic reaction in the form of angioedema, in itself, the disease is not dangerous and easily docked. But, even after a course of treatment for urticaria in adults with medications, symptoms can manifest and develop a chronic form of the disease with frequent relapses.
Over 20% of patients may have depressive disorders. In addition, this disease can be a symptom of oncological pathology.
Treatment of urticaria in adults
The tactics of treating hives are due to the identification and elimination of all pathogenicity factors leading to the development of allergic manifestations. Much attention is paid to the functional consistency of the digestive tract and central nervous system.
Possible localization of chronic infections are detected and treated, the effect of allergenic foods and medications is excluded.
When diagnosing helminths, a complex of therapeutic dehelminthization is performed. Consultative reception of the neuropathologist and an ENT of the doctor( the otolaryngologist) is recommended. Only after this is the selection of funds from hives.
Competent selection of medicines and compliance with all the recommendations of a doctor increases the chance of complete getting rid of the disease.
The purpose of treatment for urticaria in adults with drug therapy is symptomatic relief. Recommended:
- Assignment of sedative and antihistamine properties;
- Desensitizing therapy( calcium-based drugs);
- Detoxifying medicines( sodium nitrite).
Acute processes are stopped:
- with laxatives;
- cleansing enemas;
- diuretic drugs - Furosemide or Theobromine.
Restoration of the exchange processes is carried out:
- Preparations with iron deficiency;
- Salicylates that relieve allergy symptoms;
- Vitamin therapy - B6-B12;
- Preparations triosulfate.
Heavy current is stopped by steroid hormones( glucocorticosteroids) and histaglobin( Histaglobin-triplex).
The doctor decides on the home treatment for urticaria after a diagnostic examination. With the seeming harmlessness of the allergic process, it is capable of manifesting angioedema, so home attempts at self-treatment are strongly discouraged.
It should be remembered - angioedema in the facial area or neck, can be fatal, so treatment should be based on the knowledge of a professional. In addition, with such symptoms as in photo # 3, treatment of urticaria in adults at home is dangerous.
If treatment is for some reason carried out at home, it must be agreed with an allergist doctor who will develop a scheme for taking medications and will approve a plan for further monitoring the progress of treatment and diagnostic examinations.
Often the recommended home remedies, such as herbal baths or hormonal ointments on a water-zinc basis, are of no significant value in treatment.
Need a diet for hives?
Numerous studies of the course of various forms of urticaria in adult patients showed no prospects for the standard appointment of hypoallergenic diets to all patients without exception, with different forms of the disease. This approach is considered a typical error.
A diet for urticaria is only needed for patients with acute illness. At the same time, only food that has been proven to be allergenic in the process of research is excluded from the diet, or an obvious link is seen. In other cases, diet restriction is not appropriate.
There is a proven fact of alcohol damage even in small quantities, with any kind of hives.
In exceptional cases, with great motivation for the affected, the diet is prescribed for a period of not more than a month. The patient should keep a diary of the diet and compare the reaction of the body to the products.
If there is uncertainty in any product, reduce its allergenicity by freezing, cooking, peeling.
The basis of the diet should be:
- porridge on the water;
- cereal and vegetable soups with the addition of olive oil;
- baked apples;
- yogurt, yogurts and compotes.
It is better to refuse strong coffee and tea. Rapid removal of allergens from the body contributes to the use of large amounts of water( at least 2-3 liters per day).
Measures for prophylaxis of urticaria
To prevent the development of urticaria, cunning and not numerous rules will help;
- Timely treatment of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases;
- Treatment of chronic diseases of infectious nature;
- Rational nutrition;
- Elimination of allergic provocative factors.
Urticaria on the ICD 10
In the international classification of diseases of urticaria is:
Class XII.Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
L50-L54 - Hives and erythema
L50 - Hives
- L50.0 Allergic urticaria
- L50.1 Idiopathic urticaria
- L50.2 Urticaria caused by exposure to low or high temperature
- L50.3 Dermatographic urticaria
- L50.4 Vibrating urticaria
- L50.5 Cholinergic urticaria
- L50.6 Contact urticaria
- L50.8 Other urticaria
- L50.9 Urticaria, unspecified