For the first time the disease has been described in the thirties of the last century. It is sometimes called atopic eczema. Atopic dermatitis most often makes its debut in early childhood. However, he may begin in adolescence and even into adulthood. According to statistics, only 2% of all sufferers BP in adulthood, they became ill after the body maturation.
The causes of atopic dermatitis
Heredity plays a significant role, but even in the presence of the disease in both parents the child has a chance to avoid atopic dermatitis. Genetics only predisposes to the disease, the disease process itself activated by contact with allergenic factors. These include:
- industrial emissions into the atmosphere;
- aggressive chemicals: bleaches, paints, pesticides;
- GMO, preservatives, coloring agents;
- pharmaceuticals, hormones, antibiotics;
- infectious diseases;
- ordinary allergens: pollen, dust, pet hair.
The number of the above factors increases every year. That is why the incidence of atopic dermatitis in adults is increasing. Worst of all, there is widespread, habitual medicines, antiseptics and even vitamins among allergic factors. This complicates not already difficult process of treatment.
Symptoms of atopic dermatitis
For atopic dermatitis in adults is characterized by strong itching of the skin in the affected area. In addition, patients note:
- swelling and redness;
- rash of papules, pustules;
- ulceration at the site papules;
- skin peeling and the appearance of crusts;
- moist areas
All these symptoms disappear during remission and the person looks perfectly healthy. In adults, blood pressure occurs, tend to be heavier than children. Eruptions occupy a large area of skin. In severe if treatment is not available and the body can be covered almost entirely rashes. Gradually, the skin at the site of injury thickens, changing its image. If atopic dermatitis affects the scalp, it can lead to hair loss and progressive baldness.
For AD is characterized by lichenification. It appears as a result of constant scratching and skin injury and is expressed in its thickening and stiffness. -Liheny field almost never occur in children, but it is a characteristic feature of atopic dermatitis in adults 30-50 years old. The lesion may be one. Sometimes liheny appear at once in different places.
Externally liheny may look like psoriatic skin lesions. Therefore, careful diagnosis is important. Scalp focal lichen appears brittle hair, itching. But more often liheny located on the back of the neck, thighs, legs, chin, arms, genitals.
How does the blood pressure, photos
The photo below shows how the disease manifests itself in adults.
Diagnosis of the disease is not difficult. The patient is treated by a dermatologist, who can make a diagnosis based on the examination of the skin. Of course, the doctor's assumption is confirmed by biochemical analysis of a blood, a history of human life and by scraping the affected skin, which is carried out in order to avoid fungal diseases. Based on these results a patient treatment prescribed.
Accurate diagnosis is based on analysis of blood for determination of plasma levels of immunoglobulin E which neurodermatitis greatly increased. In addition, it is important to understand that the successful treatment of the disease depends primarily on the determination of the cause that provokes aggravation. In order to know what is the impetus for the development of the next exacerbation, the patient is carried out specific allergological tests: in the forearm is applied to different types of allergens and watch skin reaction. With a positive response to any of the supported components of human skin becomes congested and edematous in this place.
Atopic Dermatitis Treatment for adult
Scheme treatment of atopic dermatitis in adults will depend on the localization of inflammation, age of the patient, presence of secondary diseases.
Therapy should be complex and consist of several steps: eliminating causal factor;
- symptomatic drug treatment;
- relapse prevention,
- lifestyle adjustment.
Often immediately identify the cause of dermatitis complicated. Allergy tests before the patient is necessary to reconsider the power. Completely eliminate foods with a high index of allergenicity. The diet should be porridge, dairy products, green vegetables. Eliminate skin contact with aggressive detergents, powders, paints, varnishes.
Drug therapy is the basis for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in adults. It includes a wide range of medicines.
Groups drugs used in atopic dermatitis:
- immunosuppressive macrolide;
- moisturizers different groups.
These drugs have anti-allergic effect. Blocking the release of histamine, they eliminate the redness, reduce swelling, reduce itching. Basically they are appointed in tablet form, but also can be administered in the form of injections. This group of drugs include drugs such as the Chloropyramine (Suprastinum), clemastine, loratadine.
This group of drugs is the traditional treatment of atopic dermatitis. They are appointed as a local (as an ointment) and systemic (orally in pill form). Drugs in this group differ in the degree of activity - weak (hydrocortisone), medium (Elokim) and strong (dermoveyt). However, in recent years, the efficacy of these drugs is being questioned, because very often their purpose is complicated by a secondary infection
Moisturizers different groups
This group of drugs include various means on the basis of lanolin, as well as based on thermal water. Basically, they moisturize the skin. These products are prescribed in the period of remission, that is chronic and sub-acute period of the disease.
Also, this group includes drugs that accelerate epithelialization process. They are appointed by the presence of wounds in patients with fractures. As skin moisturizers these drugs are assigned during chronic atopic dermatitis.
These drugs, like steroids, have immunosuppressive effect. These include pimecrolimus (Elidel) and tacrolimus. The first formulation was developed as a means of topical therapy and is discharged in the form of an ointment, a second - in the form of capsules.
Ointment for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in adults
Selection of the dosage form of the drug, whether an ointment, a cream or an emulsion depends on the form of atopic dermatitis and its stage of development. Thus, in the acute phase, which is followed by weeping and crusting, recommended emulsions, infusions and sprays. For example, the assigned chamomile tincture (which has antiseptic properties), or drilling fluid. If the acute phase is not accompanied by maceration (softening of the skin moist) then you can apply creams and pastes. During the chronic atopic dermatitis appointed ointment.
Ointments and lotions, which accelerate the healing process:
- Solkoseril. Due to its composition promotes healing of tissue and enhance recovery processes in inflammation. A gel or ointment is spread directly on the wound surface, which was previously purified. Apply 1 - 2 times a day, and the wound covered with a bandage if necessary.
- Methyluracyl ointment. Anti-inflammatory effect, stimulates and accelerates healing. On clean the damaged surface of the ointment is applied in thin layers. After application of the bandage is fixed.
- Atoderm. Moisturizes the skin and removes its hypersensitivity. The cream is applied to damp but clean skin twice daily.
- Topikrem. It restores the lipid barrier of the skin, eliminating the feeling of tightness. Lubricate the dry skin areas twice a day.
- Trikzera. It reduces skin hypersensitivity, moisturises and restores the lipid layer. Apply the cream onto cleansed skin of one - two times a day.
Fenistil gel. Blocks H1-receptors, thereby inhibiting the release of histamine. The gel is applied to the surface of itchy for 3 - 5 days.
- Elidel. Blocking the release of mediators of inflammation, thereby exerting antiallergic action. Means are thin and gently rubbed into the skin surface. Procedure is applied twice daily for 6 - 8 weeks.
- Elokim. It relieves swelling and has an antipruritic effect. It is recommended to apply the ointment in the case of most of the skin peeling and cream, if dominated by inflammatory infiltration.
- Hydrocortisone. Inhibits allergic reactions and the development of edema in the outbreak. Reduces redness. Spread a layer of 1 mm at the affected skin twice daily.
- Dermoveyt. It has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Apply a thin layer of one - two times a day. The duration of treatment should not exceed 4 weeks.
Ointments and creams of various groups:
- Cream Aysida. Has an antiseptic effect, increases the metabolic processes in the skin. Deeply moisturizes the skin and restores the lipid layer. Light circular movements cream is applied morning and evening to the affected areas of the body.
- Ihtiolovaya ointment. Ointment prevents excessive keratinization of the skin. Also has an antiseptic effect, thus, prevents secondary infection of atopic dermatitis. The ointment is applied once - twice a day on areas of rough skin.
- Sulfathiazole silver. Promotes the healing of wounds, prevents the development of secondary infection. A thin layer of 1 - 2 mm using the ointment applied to the affected surface of the tampon twice a day.
Any pharmaceutical preparation for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, is available in several forms. For example, it solkoseril and discharged in the form of an ointment, and gel.
Tablets for the treatment of atopic dermatitis
In tablet form are appointed antihistamines, membrane and sedatives.
- Sedatives. Standing, sometimes agonizing itching is the cause of disorders of psycho-emotional sphere. In turn, the stress and strain act as precipitating factors in the development of atopic dermatitis. Therefore, it is important to normalize the emotional background of the patient, to prevent exacerbation of atopic dermatitis. In order to soothe used as herbal remedies and tranquilizers. The former include tincture of motherwort and passionflower, to the second - alprazolam, Tofisopam.
- Membrane preparations. These drugs are prescribed in the acute phase of illness in conjunction with antihistamines. They prevent the release of mediators of allergic reactions, such as histamine, serotonin. Representatives of this group of agents are sodium cromoglycate, ketotifen.
- Drugs that normalize bowel function. These drugs are essential in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, since pathology intestinal tract are not only provoking factors, but the main cause of atopic dermatitis. In the first place, to such drugs include means for absorbing toxins from the bowel or sorbents (smectite, lignin). They are administered in the acute phase of the disease, duration of 7 - 10 days. After treatment sorbents recommended drugs that normalize the flora and restores the protective properties of the bowel. These drugs include eubiotics (bifidumbacterin) and prebiotics (Hilak forte).
In addition to these drugs in the treatment of atopic dermatitis using hyposensitization preparations. They are appointed in the acute stage of the disease, and most often in the form of injections.
Diet in atopic dermatitis in adults is a prerequisite for treatment. We are aware that in atopic dermatitis in adults should be a balanced diet in order to maintain the necessary complex of vitamins and minerals.
With the development of atopic forms of the disease should be excluded from food, causing an acute allergic attack. The most common instigators of the disease are:
- canned and pickled products;
- sausages and smoked products;
- milk products;
- chicken eggs;
- You can not eat fatty fish and meat;
- citrus fruits, strawberries;
- fruits and vegetables (including fresh juices) bright color;
- sauces, hot spices;
- bee products, chocolate, nuts, cocoa;
- red wine, soda, fast foods.
It is recommended to cook the food on the steam bath, as this method of cooking reduces the allergenicity of foods. Sometimes a patient who can not eat fresh red vegetables (tomatoes, peppers), normally respond to the use of nutritional heat-treated vegetables.
In folk medicine, essential in the treatment of atopic dermatitis has a comprehensive approach - for example, not only remove the symptoms baths but also to carry out cleansing the body of toxins, strengthen immunity. The most popular methods facilitate efficient state when considered chronic skin diseases are:
- Soothe, relieve irritation and itching of the skin will help tea from mint and lemon balm. Brew it you can, taking a spoonful of dried and crushed herbs, bay them two glasses of boiling water and insist at least five hours. Drink this tea can overnight on half of glass.
- To wipe the skin to reduce the cutaneous manifestations may be used broth prepared with the use of oak bark. For its preparation should be one large spoonful of chopped oak bark, pour two cups of boiling water and infuse for a day.
- Geranium oil. Grind the leaves and flowers of a home geraniums, pour in a bottle of dark glass and pour the vegetable (refined) oil. First, the drug infused in a dark place for 5 days, then the bottle is moved to exposure to sunlight (for example at the sill) for a further 6 weeks. In the future, geranium oil is stored in the refrigerator (do not allow its freezing!), And can be used on a daily basis - they rubbed the affected skin.
- You can cook therapeutic bath. To this should be put into the water, a volume of one liter, 100 c. kidney birch, boil and leave to cool for an hour. Then, the resulting infusion is poured into a water bath for typeset procedures.
- In the summer can be used fresh plants. So, narwhal and nettle Bay its small number of liters of water, you can get an infusion used for lotions. They applied for anesthesia to the affected area.
- Bath with chamomile. 500 grams Brewed chamomile flowers (fresh can take can be dried) in a liter of boiling water, nataivayut for half an hour and the resulting broth was poured in a water bath. Time of treatment - 20 minutes, the water temperature should be lukewarm.
There is also a simple way to maintain the body's vitamin A, which will strengthen the immune system. It is very simple: you need to finely grate two large carrots, put it in a bowl with two cups of vegetable oil and leave for three days. The resulting mixture should be taken on a spoonful every day, the course of 2 - 3 months.
It is not necessary for atopic dermatitis only hope to help drug treatment - the disease is chronic, which means treatment is for life.
Physicians are well aware that long-term use of any drugs leads to dysfunction of all organs and systems. It is advisable to take measures to prevent exacerbations considered manifestations of chronic skin disease:
- dress according to the weather, not Kut, warn excessive sweating;
- moisturize skin ointments or creams;
- Do not overheat to avoid sharp hypothermia;
- during water treatment using Myalo tar, mild detergents without fragrances and dyes. You can buy children's transparent shower gels;
- regularly visit the open air, walk in sunny weather, but not in the heat;
- Wear cotton and jersey, and avoid wool and synthetics;
- atopy not bathe too often avoid degreasing of the epidermis;
- watch for cleanliness home, do wet cleaning every day, to avoid house dust;
- Avoid moisture indoors or, conversely, too dry air;
- After bathing, lubricate the body with special oils;
- pools with chlorinated water to patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are not suitable.
Atopic dermatitis can not be cured "once and for all" - a skin disease, unfortunately, will periodically manifested life. But subject to the above recommendations, you can enter into long-term remission of the disease. In any case, this pathology should be treated under medical supervision - need to identify the cause of development atopic dermatitis type and remove it as far as possible - only then can we count on long-term relief.