- Morbidity statistics, consequences of infection
- HPV vaccines
- The importance and effectiveness of vaccination
- Duration of vaccine action
- Comparison of different types of human papillomavirus vaccines
- Vaccination practice in the world
- Specificity and features of vaccination
- Vaccine safety, pros and cons of vaccination
- Possible side reactions
- The cost of vaccinations
- HPV vaccine video
HPV - Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which is actually a group of viruses of over 100 species. He is one of the most common on the planet. The consequence of infection can be oncology, which develops in 55-70% of sick women.
HPV can be prevented by vaccination at a young age. In Russia, vaccination against HPV is not included in the national vaccination schedule. Vaccinations can only be done privately by contacting a medical center. The price of one dose of the vaccine can be 9-15 thousand rubles. rub.
Morbidity statistics, consequences of infection
HPV is divided into oncogenic and non-oncogenic types. The first category causes the development of cancer in women and men within 5-7 years after infection. After entering the body, the virus causes structural changes in the tissues in which it mutates. The main visible sign of infection are warts on the skin and genitals.
In almost 40% of cases, neoplasms appear in places hidden from the eyes: the larynx and vocal cords, internal organs, rectum and small intestine. In these cases, warts and papillomas can be noticed by chance - in the process of screening diagnostics. Specific laboratory tests also help identify diseases.
Since few people undergo a Check Up of the body (complete examination) every year, many cases of HPV infection are determined at a late stage, which is characterized by the development of oncological processes:
- 99% of cervical cancer cases in women aged 30-40 are caused by HPV;
- 90% of cases of rectal cancer before the age of 40 are due to infection with the virus;
- almost 70% of cancer patients with lesions of the oral cavity and larynx;
- 65-70% of cases of cancer of the vulva, vagina;
- 50% of men with penile cancer under the age of 45 with a confirmed HPV diagnosis.
The virus is transmitted by household contact. It is not necessary to have sexual intercourse with a carrier for infection. The use of barrier contraceptives does not protect 100% from infection. A person becomes a carrier and distributor of HPV immediately after infection.
There are 3 vaccines registered worldwide with proven efficacy against oncogenic HPV types.
|Cervarix||Against type 16 and 18 viruses that cause cancer of the cervix, larynx, genitals, rectum.||Can be used from 9 years old|
|Gardasil-4||Against type 16, 18, 6 and 11 viruses that cause genital warts.||Can be used from 9 to 45 years old for girls and women, from 9 to 26 years old for boys and men.|
|Gardasil-9||Against viruses of 16, 18, 6, 11, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58 types.||Vaccination is given from 9 to 26 years old, regardless of gender.|
The HPV vaccine, the price of which may be even the highest, is not able to cure a person of the virus. This is only a means of preventing infection, so it is important to vaccinate children at a young age before puberty and sexual activity.
Several laboratory and human clinical trials are now targeting the development of therapeutic HPV vaccines. The research results have not yet been published, so it is impossible to say for sure whether a vaccine will be created that can destroy the papilloma virus in the body of an infected person.
The importance and effectiveness of vaccination
In Russia, HPV vaccination is not included in the mandatory vaccination schedule. The practice of universal vaccination of children is used in the EU countries, America, Canada, Australia and other countries. Therefore, the incidence of papillomavirus in developed countries is 90-95% lower than in Russia. Vaccination has been practiced there for more than 5 years, which also significantly influenced the statistics of the incidence of cancer among the young population.
Vaccines prevent precancerous conditions, reduce the likelihood of developing cancer in people under 40:
- the cervix by 84%;
- vagina by 96%;
- penis by 99%;
- rectum by 78%.
The likelihood of genital warts after the vaccine is reduced in girls by 92%, in boys - by 89%.
Duration of vaccine action
The shelf life of antibodies to the virus in the blood lasts for 15 years after vaccination. Some studies show that the effect of the vaccine lasts even longer: up to 20 years in 38% of people vaccinated.
Comparison of different types of human papillomavirus vaccines
There are currently 3 types of papillomavirus vaccines in use:
- 2-valent (from 2 types of HPV);
- 4-valent (from 4 types of the virus);
- nonavalent (from 9 types of HPV).
2-stage vaccination, according to research results, has the same effectiveness as 3-stage vaccination, performed within six months. The interval between vaccinations, increased from 6 to 12 months, allows the person's immunity to develop a more resistant response to the virus.
Studies on the use of 4-valent vaccines in men 18-26 years old show that such vaccination is most effective in preventing infection and the formation of genital warts. In women, the efficacy of 4-valent and non-valent vaccines is the same.
According to the test results, it was proved that the 4-valent vaccine more often than others provokes the development of adverse reactions in women, but the symptoms go away on their own in a short time. At the same time, men are more likely to experience complications after using nonavalent drugs.
Vaccination practice in the world
In many countries, the HPV vaccine is mandatory for schoolchildren. Statistics of the last 5 years show that the incidence of precancerous conditions and the appearance of genital warts in the vaccinated population under the age of 40 has decreased by 55-60%.
Compulsory vaccination is given to pupils of the 8th grade in the countries:
- New Zealand;
- United Kingdom;
The practice of these countries proves that vaccination is effective in reducing the mortality rate of the young population.
Specificity and features of vaccination
The HPV vaccine, the price of which in Russia will seem unreasonably high to many, is able to protect against infection with the virus. It does not cure an existing pathology, but prevents the transmission of a viral agent from person to person. Therefore, it is important to vaccinate the child before the onset of sexual activity, since in 80% of cases, infection occurs during intimacy with a partner who is a carrier of the virus.
Vaccination is performed by injection into the shoulder.
- 2-phase vaccines are administered in 2 stages. After the first injection, six months should pass, after which you need to enter the second dose.
- 3-phase vaccines are given in 3 phases over 6 months. The interval between injections is 2 months.
According to WHO recommendations, young people from 9 to 26 years old are vaccinated, since it is believed that at an older age there is a high probability that a person is already infected with the virus. Also, the best immune response is achieved with vaccination at school age.
It is possible to exclude the presence of HPV in the body by passing a special blood test or a smear from the vagina / urethra. If no virus is detected, you can get vaccinated. If the test shows the presence of HPV, the vaccine will be useless.
Important! If the analysis showed infection with a virus, for example, 11 or 18 types, then a vaccine aimed at preventing other types of HPV will also be effective.
Those who were vaccinated during childhood can repeat the procedure 15 years later to prolong the protective effect of the vaccine.
Vaccine safety, pros and cons of vaccination
The HPV vaccine, the price of which is high due to the lack of domestic analogues, is safe and does not affect fertility. It contains only the empty shell of the virus without its genetic material (DNA). Therefore, during vaccination, the likelihood of infection with HPV is excluded.
All vaccines are internationally certified. Their use is allowed upon receipt of positive results for all tests carried out in laboratories. The drugs are also rigorously tested for side effects. Over the past 15 years, more than 175 million doses of vaccines have been administered worldwide, and in all cases no serious complications have been reported.
Despite the safety and efficacy of vaccines, there are some arguments against vaccination, but they are all relative and variable in nature:
- Pregnancy. The available research results prove the safety of vaccines for the fetus, but as a precaution, doctors still recommend waiting for delivery, and only then getting the HPV vaccine.
- Allergy. If a severe allergic reaction develops after the first dose of vaccine, at the discretion of the physician make a replacement drug during the second vaccination or decide to refuse a second vaccination.
- Heat. You can vaccinate healthy patients without signs of acute respiratory infections or inflammation. To get vaccinated, you need to wait for complete recovery and the absence of symptoms of the disease within 2 weeks.
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and European Medicines Agency Investigate Possible Vaccination Relationship from HPV and chronic pain syndrome, loss of consciousness caused by a decrease in blood pressure, which have been reported in several medical reports. Research has completely disproved any connection between these phenomena.
Possible side reactions
All vaccines are capable of provoking adverse reactions. HPV vaccinations cause complications in 1 in 30 thousand. Side effects are usually mild to moderate. Symptoms of complications disappear without medical intervention, 1-2 days after the administration of the vaccine.
- Local signs of a reaction to the vaccine: redness of the area where the injection was given, skin soreness, swelling.
- Systemic symptoms: dizziness, fever, accompanied by body aches and muscle soreness, abdominal cramps, gastrointestinal disorders, malaise.
Medical attention may be required only if a severe form of allergy develops.
The cost of vaccinations
You can get a papilloma virus vaccine in Russia only for a fee in private clinics. The price of one dose of Gardasil vaccine is 13-15 thousand rubles. rub. It is possible to vaccinate against HPV with Cervarix for 9-10 thousand. rub. Usually, only the price of the vaccine is included in the price, therefore, additional payment may be required for a doctor's consultation and services for performing an injection.
HPV vaccine video
How the HPV vaccine works: