- What is it, definition
- Jung's theory
- General concept
- Purpose of the process
- Process steps
- Significance in personality formation
- Conditions for implementation
- Implementation options
- Customization video
Individualization, or individuation, this is a term in psychology that was first introduced into everyday life by K. Jung. He also developed the original concept, and he was the first to study this process. His predecessors can be considered scientists V. Stern and F. Galton, who were the first to study the very phenomenon of individuality.
What is it, definition
Individualization in psychology is a concept that has several definitions. In general, they are very similar to each other, but there are still some differences between them.
In general, this is the psychological formation of a personality, in the process of which her own abilities, traits and unique characteristics develop. The concept is associated with the need for a person to remain a full-fledged part of society, but at the same time to stand out and differ from others.
Different specialists, however, give slightly different definitions of the concept, and sometimes completely inappropriate to the original meaning of the word.
|Whose definition||As formulated|
|V. AND. Slobodchikov, Russian psychologist||Defines individuation as the appropriation of those values existing in the environment that do not contradict their own position and the person's worldview. In the process, one should overcome meaningless group restrictions, fight against other people's assessments and stereotypes, not rely on someone else's opinion and resist external pressure. As a result, a person must learn to refuse or accept what the world around him offers him.|
|WITH. Kierkegaard and humanistic psychology||In the humanistic direction of psychology, individualization is considered in the way that S. Kierkegaard, that is, as an effort made to be oneself. On the other hand, it is also defined as a path to the formation of one's own personality. The task of a person in the process is to develop all his features, including those that society considers negative, "sharp angles." According to this view, a person should not succumb to social pressure and abandon himself.|
|In existential psychology||Individuation is defined as mastering one's own life, realizing and searching for one's meaning in life or purpose, as well as mastering the world and the opportunities that it provides.|
|Rena Branch and Rob Wilson in a book on cognitive behavioral therapy||They define individualization as is customary in a given school of psychology. They describe this process as a cognitive distortion, which involves mistakenly associating events that have nothing to do with a person.
For example, a person may decide that the cashier in the store did not smile at him because something is wrong with him. At the same time, he will not even have the thought that this may be the end of the shift and the absence of a smile, this is not a personal dislike, but a sign of fatigue. An equally common case is when a laughing company passes by and a person thinks that they are laughing at him. And for a second he does not admit the likelihood that the reason for the laughter may be in a joke on an unrelated topic, which he simply did not hear.
TO. Jung worked on the concept of individuation deeper and wider than others. Therefore, his theory should be considered separately.
Despite the fact that at a certain period of his life Jung collaborated with Z. Freud, he did not share his views on human development. First, he does not attach particular importance to childhood psychosexual conflicts and does not believe that they determine all the behavior of the individual. Second, Jung does not believe that childhood is a decisive period for the formation of behavioral patterns.
To put it very briefly, according to his theory, individualization is a combination of unconscious and conscious experience. Jung understood the process as the separation, construction and concretization of its essence. It should take place so that a person can find out who he is and develop his personality.
In both Jungian psychology and other concepts, individuation is a contradictory process, since it involves the joining of opposites. According to Jung's theory, such conflicts and contradictions are associated with the confrontation between the conscious and the unconscious, as well as collectivity and individuality.
The basis for the formation of personality Jung considered the ego, from which comes a gradual understanding of aspects previously denied, and then their acceptance. At the same time, it is important not to identify with them, to distinguish them from oneself.
As a result, certain aspects of the personality will be accepted in the first place. Then, as a result of internal efforts, a repressed emotional experience. As a result, it must be analyzed for adequacy, possible conflict and trauma experience. After that, a person takes part of the collective unconscious and adds culturally inherited archetypes to his development.
Despite the fact that Jung did not believe that the whole process takes place in childhood and adolescence, he did not deny that individuation is partly related to the biological development of a person. This is a separate concept. According to her, each phase lasts about 10 years and does not end with final maturation.
- The birth of the ego. Usually occurs around 3 years of age. Until that moment, there was no awareness of oneself as a separate person.
- Achieving puberty. At this stage, a person strives to separate from others and begins to search for his identity.
- Adapting to your role and accepting yourself. Usually this period is associated with early adolescence.
- Search for the meaning of the self. Here, presumably, individualization ends. Usually the stage is associated with reaching middle age or old age.
But in practice, the entire cycle, not counting the very initial stage, can be repeated several times during life. This will no longer be associated with biological changes in a person, but with changing life circumstances, obtaining new knowledge or rethinking existing values.
Individualization in psychology is, if we take the concept in general, it is the process of a person becoming independent. He acquires the integrity of the personality and acquires the ability to autonomy. In the course of individuation, various psychic abilities must be developed, which will manifest themselves not immediately, but as a person grows.
According to the generally accepted concept, individuation is most noticeable during adolescence, when a person separates himself from his parents and forms his own identity and essence. Nevertheless, without a connection with the cultural environment and family, the process is impossible, since there is no starting point. Even if in the end a person begins to deny everything that is accepted in his native culture and family, the initial relationship with them is necessary, otherwise there will be nothing to oppose his views.
Purpose of the process
Individualization is necessary for the child to develop and eventually become an independent, unique person. The work related to the realization of the potential abilities of the child and his hidden talents is aimed precisely at this. If pupils are given a certain amount of independence in achieving the desired or in making decisions, then this will help in the future to build your own life path, since all the skills necessary for this will already be received.
TO. Jung, and later the followers of his school of psychology, believed that in the process of individuation, a person overcomes archetypes alien to him and forced upon him. And the main goal of the founder of Jungian psychoanalysis was to achieve a balance of the psyche.
In psychology, most processes are described as a gradual movement towards a goal. And individualization is no exception. In this case, 4 main phases and 1 final are required. In the process, a person fills his unconscious and conscious, and then unites internal opposites, such as shadow and personality or unconscious and conscious. This happens until you can become "yourself".
- The first stage, abandoning oneself, approaching the unconscious for the first time. This happens when a person realizes that his consciousness is not all of being. He begins to notice and track impulses and desires, as well as unexpressed needs of the psyche. A person understands that there is a large part of his personality that he ignores and tries to understand it and get closer to it.
- The next stage, meeting your shadow. This happens after a person realizes that there is something more in him than what he is familiar with. He discovers that there is something unconscious, a set of traits that are usually considered negative and rejected. They are most often projected onto others. Thus, a person realizes his dual nature and the presence of a shadow. This allows the individual to feel like a separate being, but connected to the outside world. As soon as the existence of the shadow is recognized, they begin to evaluate it, but without condemnation, despite the fact that some subconscious human urges and desires are socially frowned upon. The goal at this stage of development is not to obey your impulses, but to accept your shadow side as part of the personality and stop denying its existence.
- The third stage, meeting with the anima or animus. So, for a woman in this phase, it is necessary to accept her animus, that is, the male archetype, which is traditionally responsible for vitality, intelligence, wisdom and energy. A man should integrate the anima into his personality, his opposite, responsible for the expression of emotions, affection, sensitivity. These archetypes are usually part of the cultural heritage. In the subconscious, they often take on the appearance that best suits the different facets of the concepts of "femininity" or "masculinity" accepted by society. Some psychologists of the Jungian school say that the relationship of a woman with an animus and a man with an anima is identical to their relationship with the opposite sex. Others refrain from such formulations, and consider this state of affairs possible, but not obligatory for everyone without exception.
- The last phase, the adoption of the light archetype. After the dark, denied sides of the personality are illuminated, the understanding of oneself becomes deeper and wider. This can evoke a sense of omnipotence bordering on narcissism. Nevertheless, at this stage of development, there is no isolation from reality and a person is able to see that his abilities are not unlimited. It is in this phase that wisdom appears, and the ability to emphasize introspection.
- The final stage, the coincidence of opposites. The final formation of personality, the emergence of "I". The process ends when the opposites coincide or at least turn out to be fully accepted. This stage is characterized by the absence of contradictions in all aspects of human personality. As a result, the subject becomes whole, self-sufficient, independent and can even form his own ethical system.
Due to changing external circumstances, the receipt of previously unavailable information, the accumulation of life experience and other factors, conscious individuation can continue throughout life and each stage can be repeated several once. This partly explains why at 30 a person had the same views, and he was one person, and at 60 he can become his complete opposite.
Significance in personality formation
According to the Jungian school of psychology, individualization is a series of interrelated changes. They are necessary to reach the so-called middle of the personality, that is, a transitional point, after which it becomes possible to enter into contact with the unconscious and conscious.
The main meaning of the idea of individualization is that a person can combine different aspects of the psyche and personality, and, thereby, acquire his own, unique character.
It is individualization that allows a person to be free and develop a personal view of the world and a way of acting, and not just follow the schemes developed by other schemes.
Thanks to her, it becomes possible:
- the emergence of hobbies that are different from the expectations of the immediate environment;
- creating a lifestyle that is comfortable for a person, not necessarily the one they tried to instill in childhood, in the process of upbringing;
- choosing a circle of friends of your own free will.
The result of the completed individuation process is the acceptance or denial of one's various traits and the ability to value them. Even those that seem undesirable. In the Jungian school of psychology, hidden, unwanted and rejected traits are called a shadow, and the demonstrated part of oneself is called a personality.
Conditions for implementation
Individualization in psychology is a complex process that is best studied by K. Jung. Therefore, it is customary to consider the conditions for its implementation in the vein in which the researcher himself suggested.
There are 3 conditions or signs by which you can determine whether the process went well:
- Outside of society and without collective relationships, individuation cannot be successful. Only the interaction of the individual with the society makes it possible, on the one hand, to assimilate the norms, principles and values accepted in this community. And, on the other hand, accept only those attitudes that are closer to a certain person, and not all without exception.
- The process was aimed at the development and formation of a person's personality and nothing else. He must lead the individual to an understanding of the traits and characteristics inherent only to him. This makes it possible to objectively evaluate both other people's capabilities and actions, and their own.
- Individuation implies and reflects how and to what extent a person opposes his worldview to social norms that are not unconditionally valuable. For example, in a secular state, everyone can accept or not accept the religion that his immediate environment adheres to.
The basis of individualization is the recognition of the uniqueness of any person, his uniqueness, obligatory freedom and the right to choose. Without this, the complete completion of the process is impossible.
Individualization in psychology is a process that never happens the same way in different people. Nevertheless, there are 2 main options for how it can take place.
The first is spontaneous individuation. This option implies a continuous process starting at an early age. It occurs most actively in adolescents and children, it is then that a person begins to distinguish himself from others and strives to do this as noticeably as possible. In this way, the individual receives the first social experience, which can later be used for introspection and analysis of the environment.
The second method is individuation through analysis. This is typical of adulthood. The basis of the process is the desire to understand oneself and human nature. It takes place with the help of observations, various mechanisms of reflection and analysis.
In psychology, many processes associated with the formation of a personality are studied. One of them is individualization. Despite the fact that this term not all schools denote the same phenomenon as Jungian psychoanalysis and the like direction, without him it would be difficult to designate the process of acquiring specific personality traits by a person and character.
Individualization and socialization: