Melanoma - a disease of the skin, which is not so easy to diagnose in the early stages. This is due to the fact that signs of a growing tumor the patient may simply not notice until the symptoms persist. Today, however, to identify the disease at its earliest manifestations are not so complicated that it allows early treatment.
The content of the article:
- 1 What is melanoma
- 2 Factors that may provoke the development of melanoma
- 3.1 Classification by Breslow
- 3.2 Classification Clark
- 4 The first signs of melanoma
- 5 As growing melanoma
- 6 Stages of developing melanoma
- 7 How do you recognize a melanoma: signs and symptoms of the disease
- 8 diagnosis of the disease
9 How is melanoma
- 9.1 drug therapy
- 9.2 Chemotherapy and radiotherapy
- 9.3 Surgery
- 10 Prognosis and clinical guidelines
- 11 Videos about melanoma
What is melanoma
Melanoma represents disease of the skinIn which it appears the cancer as a result of atypical proliferation of cancer cells. Typically, the tumor grows after injury conventional birthmark or permanent effects of ultraviolet radiation, laser or other beams, which may provoke similar changes.
Pathology may develop rapidly or over several years did not appear. However, with the rapid progression increases the likelihood of developing complications.
Factors that may provoke the development of melanoma
Melanoma in early stages, the symptoms of which notice not all patients can develop different sex and age in humans. However, experts note that in patients Caucasian tumor appears several times more likely than those who have a dusky or dark skin.
The basic precipitating factors include the following:
- Regular and prolonged exposure to the sun's rays on the skin. Thus there is an uneven distribution of the melanocytes and the formation of pigment spots, which can subsequently grow into a melanoma. All patients who prefer long sunbathing, are at risk.
- Frequent visits to the solarium. Despite the relatively safe radiation patients receive regular tan in a way much more often go to the doctor about the appearance of tumors.
- The presence on the body of a large number of moles, especially large, towering above the skin. Thus there is a permanent damage to them, provoking proliferation of abnormal cells.
- Professional activities related to regular contact with hazardous substances, poisons, toxins.
- Alcohol abuse, long-term smoking.
- The use of a large number of products containing additives have a carcinogenic effect.
- Long-term use of potent medicines or the use of ointments, creams on hormonal basis.
- Chronic dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis may also induce pathology, such as when there is a regular diseases damage the outer layer of the skin and cell renewal. In this case, the cell formation process is not always right, and this leads to the appearance of tumors.
- Weakening the immune defense of the organism as a result of vitamin deficiency, as well as diseases that provoke an immunodeficiency, such as AIDS. When this body is not able to deal with different pathologies and to resist the formation of tumors.
It should also be noted that in patients with a history of similar disease, melanoma forms in a few times more, because the state is prone to relapses.
There are several classifications of diseases, each of which involves the separation of the melanoma, depending on the size and lesions of the skin.
Classification by Breslow
This classification involves separation neoplasms depending on the thickness, i.e. the level of penetration in the skin. Superficial melanoma less dangerous, they are easier to remove, and the chance of cure is much greater. If the cells have penetrated into the deeper layers of the skin, in the risk of metastasis increased several times, and recovery occurs less frequently.
Breslow classification divides tumors into the following types:
- Neoplasm size up to 0.75 mm.
- A tumor, whose size does not exceed 1.5 mm.
- Melanoma, which does not grow more than 3 mm.
- Tumor size of 3 to 4 mm.
- Neoplasm whose size exceeds 4 mm.
The larger the melanoma, the higher the risk of complications such as the spread of metastases as a result of deep penetration into the skin cells.
Melanoma in early stages, the symptoms of which help to determine the type of pathology are classified depending layers of affected skin. The most frequent tumors are localized in the epidermis and do not violate the basement membrane of the dermis.
However, melanoma can be localized in the epidermis, the basal membrane but affect the papillary dermis. Clark also allocates neoplasm completely localized in papillary layer and those that affect the reticular dermal layer.
Neoplasm of the most dangerous is that which affects the subcutaneous fat. Get rid of the tumor in the epidermis is quite simple, but the fat lesions increases the likelihood of metastasis of the tumor.
The first signs of melanoma
The disease is not easy to diagnose at an early stage. Education can take the form of spots or a small elevation, which differs in color from the rest of the skin.
However, in some cases, the tumor has no color, and the only sign is a slight peeling in its formation, as well as itching, causing the patient to comb the skin. Somewhat later in the area of the damaged sheet appears slight redness.
If the patient has a painted melanoma, in the initial stages it is small, uneven color and edge. It should be noted that tumor smoothly into healthy skin, which distinguishes it from conventional birthmark having clear outlines.
After some time in the small tumor pain appears. It is weakly expressed, the patient does not feel it all the time, but the symptom appears if damaged or exposed to chemicals, such as gels or aggressive soaps.
In addition, in the area of neoplasms appears strong itch. Sometimes melanoma may bleed, and its color becomes darker on the skin disappear hair.
It is worth remembering that in the initial stage of other signs are absent, because only the tumor begins to grow in the deep layers of the skin.
As growing melanoma
Because the disease is malignant, it is developing fairly quickly. Tumor growth was rapid. In the initial stages of melanoma germinate only in the epidermis, after which it increases the size and base damage deeper layers of skin, reaching the subcutaneous fat.
Each patient growth occurs at different rates, but in most cases a few weeks after the first signs of a considerable increase in the diameter of the tumor and lesion depth tissues.
It should also be noted that, despite the aggressive disease at the initial stage, it does not cause the formation of metastases. That is why the timely detection of possible cure.
Stages of developing melanoma
Melanoma in its early stages, the symptoms of which can not be ignored, different mild and causes no complications.
Like other malignant disease, the tumor develops in 4 stages, each with its own distinction:
- In the first stage there is a lesion on the skin. The general condition of the patient is not affected, the symptoms of the internal organs missing. Many patients over a long period, do not pay attention to the signs and do not go to the doctor.
- In the second stage there are common disorders of the nervous system, as well as the tumor itself. Its size, shape and color changes, symptoms of the skin occur. Needless tumor causing severe discomfort to the patient, not only in case of damage, but also at rest.
- The third stage is considered to be severe. At this stage, pathology develops quite fast, it is affected extensive area of the skin, the pain increases. In addition, there are metastases in the internal organs, due to germination of melanoma in the subcutaneous fat.
- The fourth stage is considered incurable, there is a loss not only to the internal organs, but also the lymph nodes. During diagnostic examination specialist detects multiple metastases in the internal organs and tissues.
The most preferred embodiment is considered in one treatment stage, sometimes detected at step 2 may recovery.
How do you recognize a melanoma: signs and symptoms of the disease
Symptoms of the disease in the early stages mild. The patient does not bother pain or other symptoms in tumors. The only sign of the itch is considered, as well as change the color, shape, size of the tumor.
However, such features do not pay attention to all patients, especially in the case of the location of the tumor in the back, buttocks or back of the leg. Experts note that more than 50% of melanoma forms on the site of an ordinary mole.
After some time, the tumor increases in size and starts to hurt, bleed and itch badly.
The patient noted a weakness, slight fever, and other symptoms are present:
- Apathy or depression.
- Poor appetite, weight loss.
- Paleness of the skin.
- Intensive work of sweat glands.
- performance decline.
- The change of taste preferences.
- Fluctuation of blood pressure indicators.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Pain in joints and muscles.
At advanced stages pain is not limited to the tumor, but also the internal organs, the patient can not accurately determine the location of the pain, since it applies to all the mediastinum and abdominal cavity.
It is worth noting that the last stage of the patient almost does not get out of bed, his skin becomes gray, dry mass of the body decreases dramatically. In addition, blood pressure decreases to the critical exponents, the patient often seen fainting.
diagnosis of the disease
Help diagnose melanoma dermatologist-oncologist even in the early stages, despite the fact that the symptoms are manifested not as pronounced as in advanced cases.
|Inspection using dermatoscope||For inspection using a special device that examines the light, allowing to evaluate the condition of the skin in the area of occurrence of tumors. It pays special attention to the doctor edge and shape of the tumor. Additionally expert examines all patient skin, mucous membranes.|
|Clinical and biochemical blood||Standard method, in which the venous blood of the patient is investigated. Particular attention should be paid to the expanded leucocyte count in a clinical study. It allows you to detect early signs of cancer.|
|Histological examination of the tumor sample||After the standard examination the doctor separates the small sample of tumor and sent to the laboratory. After soaking the fabric in a special solution made microcuts who studied under a microscope.|
|Ultrasound of internal organs||This type of research shows a suspected tumor metastasis in the internal organs. The doctor examines the liver, kidney, pancreas, stomach and intestines.|
|MRI||Full-body examination is shown in the case where ultrasound shows no abnormalities, but the doctor believes their presence. Tomography allows to identify even small pockets which is not visible in ultrasonic diagnosis.|
Comprehensive survey helps to make an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
How is melanoma
For treating a disease used medicines, chemotherapy, and surgery is performed to remove tumors. At advanced stages only opioids to help alleviate the patient's condition.
The therapy involves the use of drugs only funds that do not affect the melanoma, but facilitate the patient's condition, remove the internal organs symptoms.
Most often used the following drugs:
- Reglan - a drug to eliminate nausea and vomiting attacks curation. It helps to quickly eliminate the symptoms and improve the patient's condition. Means may be administered in tablet form 1 tablet 2 times a day, but the best solution was administered 2 ml intravenously or intramuscularly. The course lasts from 5 to 10 days.
- ibuprofen prescribed to relieve pain and reduce fever. The patient takes from 1 to 3 tablets per day depending on the severity of symptoms. The course of treatment lasts up to 7 days.
- ketorol - nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, which helps to eliminate severe pain in the progression of the pathology. The patient may be administered to 1 ml, morning and evening, and assign 1 tablet 2 times per day. Course duration - up to 14 days.
- omeprazole - means to protect the gastric mucosa chronic administration of pain killers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The tablets are 1 piece 3 times a day. The course is milked at least 2 weeks.
- Entalferon - immunostimulant drug in the form of tablets, appointed to enhance the body's defenses. Tablets take 1 to 2 times per day for 4 weeks.
- Reosorbilakt - preparation to cleanse the blood and eliminate the symptoms of intoxication. The solution is introduced 200-400 meters per day intravenously with a dropper. The course lasts at least 7 days.
- Ringer - preparation rehydration organism containing sodium and potassium ions. It helps eliminate signs of intoxication, to improve the condition, to prevent dehydration. The solution was administered intravenously with a dropper, the daily dosage is 400 ml. The course of treatment lasts at least 10 days.
- morphine - narcotic analgesic that is prescribed to patients with severe pain in the advanced stages of the disease. The drug is administered intramuscularly at bedtime to 1 ml. Such injections can do for several weeks or only 10-14 days.
Comprehensive treatment is effective at 1, 2 and 3, the stage of disease, the circuit is made individually for each patient.
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy
Melanoma in early stages, the symptoms of which should be a cause for concern, it can be cured with the help of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Chemotherapy is prescribed individually, conducted courses for 5-10 sessions at intervals of 2-3 days. Courses are held at intervals of 3-4 months. If the surgery is used, the chemotherapy is administered intravenously prior to surgery and after carrying out to destroy pathogenic cells. At step 2 the chemotherapy is carried out carefully.
Radiotherapy is a method of irradiating radio waves in order to destroy pathogenic cells and preventing the spread of metastasis. Patient undergoing a procedure in a hospital, the number of sessions is determined individually, typically it takes 3 to 7 irradiations.
Doctors before starting treatment the patient warns of the adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite. In addition, the therapy can lead to baldness.
The operation is performed with the rapid growth of tumors, requires local or general anesthesia. Manipulation involves excision within healthy tissue with subsequent crosslinking of the wound if needed.
Sometimes it is not required to suture, the wound is covered with a sterile bandage material and fixed. Before the surgery, the patient undergoes a complete examination that allows to evaluate his condition and prevent complications.
rehabilitation course lasts from 2 to 6 weeks depending on the affected area. If the operation is carried out not only on the skin but also on the internal organs, the recovery period can last for up to 10 weeks. Such intervention is always carried out with the use of general anesthesia.
After surgery, the patient is re-examination, as well as chemotherapy. After some time he again visited the doctor to make sure there are no signs of recurrence of the disease.
Prognosis and clinical guidelines
Upon detection of disease at an initial stage of a favorable prognosis for the patient. After a course of treatment the patient while under the supervision of, physician visits every 6 months. In the absence of symptoms of relapse it is removed from the dispensary.
If abnormality is detected on the 2, 3 or 4 stages, an unfavorable prognosis, since it is almost impossible to achieve a full recovery. Patients were allocated to the operation, several courses of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
After that he always visits a doctor to assess his condition. It should be noted that when there are multiple metastases, surgery is not performed in the internal organs. The patient received symptomatic treatment to relieve symptoms.
With a favorable prognosis of patients is recommended to follow the rules that will reduce the risk of recurrence. It is not necessary for a long time to be in the open sun, as well as expose the skin to toxic substances. It is recommended to see your doctor regularly, undergo diagnostic testing.
At the first signs of melanoma should immediately consult a specialist. In order to detect the first signs of the patient should monitor the status of nevi and nevi on the body.
Melanoma - a malignant neoplasm, which manifests itself in the early stages unexpressed symptoms. Symptoms of the disease not to notice all of the patients, which complicates treatment because the tumor can grow quite rapidly. To achieve full recovery should start treatment at 1 stage.
Registration of the article: Vladimir the Great
Videos about melanoma
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