Inflammation causes that small blood vessels of the conjunctiva become more visible, and white color sclera assumes a pink or red color, which is why this condition is often referred to as "pink eye. " Some forms of the disease can be very contagious and easily spread. Although infectious conjunctivitis is usually not considered difficult with the current eye disease, it can sometimes lead to more serious consequences.
What it is?
Conjunctivitis - an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eye (conjunctiva), the cause of which may be an allergic reaction, viral or bacterial infection. Conjunctivitis is an acute and chronic, adenovirus (pharyngoconjunctival fever), bacterial, Herpes, Chlamydia.
Typically, the symptoms are similar, it is eye redness, discharge and discomfort (cramps, sand in the eyes, photophobia).
The most common causes of conjunctivitis are viruses, bacteria and allergens. But there are other factors that cause this disease, including chemicals, fungi, certain diseases, the use of contact lenses (especially extended wear). Conjunctival irritation may also occur when foreign matter gets in the eye, in contact with air contaminated, for example, chemical vapors, gases, smoke, or dust, both indoors and outside it.
The main causes of conjunctivitis, depending on the type:
- Allergic. Developing in response to contact with the allergen, is an inflammation of the mucous membrane eye, accompanied by redness and swelling of the eyelids, tearing, photophobia, itching.
- Adenovirus. Its pathogen - adenovirus that is transmitted by airborne droplets. Most often sick children in communities (schools, kindergartens), the disease occurs in the form of an epidemic nature of outbreaks.
- Acute epidemic. He - conjunctivitis Koch-Weeks, is endemic and occurs most often in the summer among children who live in hot climates. Transferred to this kind of disease through dirty hands and contaminated objects.
- Blennoreyny. It called gonococcus and develops in newborns. Infection occurs when passing through the mother's birth canal, gonorrhea.
- Acute. Activators of this form of the disease may act streptococci, staphylococci, or pneumococci, gonococci. As a rule, infection takes place due to external contact with bacteria, it is easy to carry infection via dirty hands. Predispose to disease cooling or overheating exhaustion transferred infection microtraumas eye mucosa, myopia, astigmatism.
- Chronic. Under this type of conjunctivitis understand long conjunctival irritation due to dust, chemical contamination air, for beriberi and metabolic disorders, chronic diseases of the nasal and lacrimal system, and ametropia.
- Conjunctivitis Moraksa-Aksenfeld has chronic or subacute and is localized mainly in the corners of the eyes.
symptoms of conjunctivitis
In general cases, these are the symptoms: swelling of the eyelids, swelling and redness of the conjunctiva, photophobia, lacrimation, redness of the eye protein.
Symptomatology, depending on the type of disease:
- Bacterial conjunctivitis. One of the first symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis is quite murky and viscous discharge from the eyes. In this case, the patient's eyelids may stick together, especially after sleeping. However, it is understood that these symptoms are common to all bacteria, so in the absence of such symptoms to exclude bacterial infection is not necessary. The second symptom of bacterial conjunctivitis is dryness of the conjunctiva and the skin around the affected eye. When bacterial conjunctivitis can be affected only one eye, and then the infection can spread to the other. Pain and foreign body sensation in the eye - another characteristic symptom for bacterial conjunctivitis. In addition, in bacterial conjunctivitis slight bleeding in the eyeball.
- Viral conjunctivitis, most often associated with upper respiratory tract infection (adenovirus or herpes) can occur when the common cold, and / or sore throat. Symptoms are different for each person, depending on his age, immune system, the degree of contamination. Typically such conjunctivitis begin in one eye, then the infection progresses to the other eye. Begins pain in the corner of the eye, redness appears vessels, the conjunctiva is inflamed and bright red color, can manifest photophobia. In the case of adenoviral conjunctivitis eye lesion precedes and accompanies defeat top airways, fever, increased prootic lymph nodes (more commonly in children). Moderate marked blepharospasm, scant purulent discharge. Often the disease is accompanied by the appearance of follicles or films (more children).
- Allergic conjunctivitis. As a rule, for the allergic form of conjunctivitis is characterized by typical symptoms of this disease. The patient observed severe swelling and redness of the eyelids, severe itching, eye burning and pain when exposed to bright light eyes. In allergic conjunctivitis may cause mucous or purulent discharge from the eyes.
- Conjunctivitis caused by toxic and toxic substances. The main symptom - pain and irritation in the eye, look at moving up or down. Discharge and itching, as a rule, lacking. This is the only group of conjunctivitis, which may be accompanied by severe pain.
- In the case of acute conjunctivitis is marked feeling cramps in the eyes, mucous-purulent or purulent discharge. For blennoreynogo conjunctivitis is characterized by first sanioserous, and after 3-4 days, copious purulent discharge. Perhaps the formation of infiltrates, corneal ulcers. Conjunctivitis Koch-Wicks multiple small hemorrhages in the conjunctiva and sclera its swelling in the form of triangular elevations within the optic fissure. Conjunctivitis Moraksa-Aksenfeld differs subacute or chronic course and preferentially localized in the corners of the eye slit.
- In the case of chronic conjunctivitis is marked itching, burning, a feeling of "sand for centuries," eye fatigue.
- Chlamydial conjunctivitis. In most cases, conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia, is characterized by asymptomatic. Possible eye redness, photophobia and slight tearing. Starting from 3-5 days after the onset of disease in patients with lymph node disease develops in the ears.
According to recent studies, a greater risk of long-term damage of the disease when exposed to people with conjunctivitis blue eyes, which are much more sensitive to light.
The diagnosis of conjunctivitis is set based on characteristic clinical picture. To determine the cause of the data have a value such as, for example, contact with an allergen, the dependence of the sunlight, particularly flow (e.g., seasonality, availability malaise).
The most informative direct microscopic and bacteriological smears and conjunctival discharge with determination of susceptibility to antibiotics, as well as cytology smears with conjunctiva.
conjunctivitis treatment at home
Important in the treatment of all forms of the disease - the elimination of the causes of the negative symptoms of the inflammatory process. With this purpose, the drug therapy. Symptomatic treatment eliminates symptoms of conjunctivitis, it consists in applying topical preparations. They are administered to the mucous eye.
- Bacterial. For fast relief of inflammation 2-4 times a day instilled Diclofenac. Hygienic processing performed eye antiseptic solutions (furatsillina 1: 1000, 2% boric acid). The destruction of pathogenic bacteria is carried sulphonamides and antibiotics in the form of ointments or drops (erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin ointment, drops sulfacetamide, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin). First they lay buried or 4-6 times a day, 2-3 days - 2-3 times a day as long as symptoms persist. For the prevention of relapse use simultaneously Piloksidin drops 3 times a day.
- Allergic. Conjunctivitis allergic nature used antihistamines. Unfortunately, sometimes these drugs cause side effects such as drowsiness, headaches or insomnia, so they need to be taken only with the permission of a doctor. In allergic conjunctivitis is extremely important to determine the cause of the allergy and avoided contact with him. If the allergy is severe, the patient may be given a steroid eye drops.
- Purulent. In this form of conjunctivitis important to promptly and thoroughly remove purulent discharge antiseptic solutions (furatsillina, 2% boric acid, potassium permanganate solution). To eliminate the cause of inflammation is applied 2-3 times a day gentamicin, erythromycin or tetracycline ointment, lomefloxacin drops to a complete cure. Swelling cropped diclofenac.
- Chlamydia. Treatment conjunctivitis provoked by protozoa, carried systemic drugs. Most often, this Levofloxacin (1 tab. daily for 7 days). At the same time 4-5 times a day used drugs with topical antibiotics (drops lomefloksatsin or erythromycin ointment). They are used from 3 weeks to 3 months to complete relief of symptoms of conjunctivitis. inflammatory drug Diclofenac treatment is carried out 2 times a day for a long time. At its ineffectiveness Dexamethasone used with the same frequency. Dry eye syndrome prevention is carried out preparations of artificial tears (Oksial, Oftagel).
- Chronic. Treatment for this form of conjunctivitis is successful, if timely to identify the cause of the disease. Apply the drops 0.25-0.5% solution of zinc sulfate and 1% solution of resorcinol. Alternative formulations - administering r-ra Protargolum or Collargol 2-3 p / day, implanting in the eye before sleep yellow mercury ointment..
use of interferon preparations having antiviral effect for the treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis (Laferon Interferon). They are used in the form of instillations of the drug solution on the mucosa.
- The first 2-3 days - inteferony 6-8 p / day.
- Until complete disappearance of symptoms - interferons 4-5 p / day.
- . Ointment antiviral effect (bonaftonovaya, tebrofenovaya, florenalevaya) - 2-4 p / day;
- If a strong inflammation of the mucous - diclofenac 3-4 p / day.
- For the prevention of dry eye syndrome - tears substitutes Vidisik, Oftagel, Sisteyn.
Pain, the first signs appearing conjunctivitis cropped introducing drops of topical anesthetic (lidocaine, Trimekain, Piromekain). Hygienic handling ciliary edge of eyelids and eye mucosa carried antiseptic solutions (furatsillina, Dimexidum, Oksitsianat, potassium permanganate, brilliant green).
After removal of pain and hygienic treatment of eyes begin to treating the causes of the disease, administered to the eye antibiotics, antihistamines, antiviral agents, sulfonamides. They are used, depending on the factors that cause the disease. In the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis used antibiotics in viral conjunctivitis - antivirals (florenal, Keretsid) in allergic - antihistamines (diphenhydramine, Dibazol).
This algorithm is followed up until not disappear all of the clinical symptoms of conjunctivitis. All this time, prohibited the imposition of any bandages on the eyes, not to create a favorable environment for bacteria and other pathogens without causing recurrences and complications.
Recipes conjunctivitis treatment folk remedies, it is desirable to use in conjunction with conventional medicine and with the consent of your doctor. In this case, the people's money to help a speedy recovery and will not cause any harm to the eye.
- Washing of patients with ocular infusion of yarrow.
- The infusion of chamomile. Tablespoon apothecary chamomile pour two cups of boiling water, cover and leave for 1-1.5 hours. Double strain (to completely clear solution from the particles of plants) and use as a means for washing the eye every 3-4 hours. Chamomile not only reduce inflammation but also relieve swelling, itching and other unpleasant symptoms. Instead chamomile eyewash can use fresh tea leaves of black tea.
- Broth leafs. Three secondary bay leaves pour cup of boiling water and allow to stand for a couple of hours. The resulting infusion used for the lotion every two hours. This is one of the most powerful traditional medicine for the treatment of conjunctivitis, as it has in its composition volatile.
- Take home an egg, separate the protein and dissolve it in 100 milliliters of boiling water. Use eyewash. This recipe is perfectly relieves symptoms such as burning and itching.
- Decoction of tea rose. Teaspoon of petals plants pour a glass of boiling water and pokipyatit for 2-3 minutes. Infuse for half an hour and use for washing.
- The juice of aloe or dill diluted 1:10 with boiled water and rinsing.
Launched infective conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia may lead to deformation of the eyelids and eyelashes pathology growth.
The disease is caused by a different type of bacteria can be complicated by meningitis, sepsis, otitis. In newborn babies after conjunctivitis can begin the progression of eye diseases.
After adenoviral infection rarely possible clouding of the cornea and tear film disturbances. The most common complication of allergic conjunctivitis - a chronic form. After repeated herpes conjunctivitis remain scars.
Infectious conjunctivitis may cause keratitis (corneal inflammation).
Due to the fact that some types of conjunctivitis are infectious, you should carefully observe good personal hygiene, especially with the appearance of your environment in a sick person.
- Personal hygiene.
- Use only their hygiene items, bedding, etc.
- Avoid frequent contact with your eyes, particularly unwashed hands.
- After visiting the pool thoroughly wash eyes with running, and it is better boiled and cooled water.
- Enhance immunity, especially in the transitional seasons: take vitamin and mineral supplements, go on a healthy diet, to harden.
- If a sick child, to explain to him that you can not touch your eyes, baby monitor the cleanliness of hands, purity and humidity in the room.
- With the development of symptoms of conjunctivitis rarely possible to be in a public place, in terms of air pollution, not swim in the pool, these measures are necessary to prevent the penetration of new infections in the body, the mucous eye.
For children will serve as a good prevention skills: do not rub your eyes, wash your hands after contamination anything to eat only after washing your hands.