Schizophrenia( from other Greek - σχίζω - split and φρήν - mind, reason), earlier lat. Dementia praecox( "premature dementia") is a polymorphic psychiatric disorder or group of psychiatric disorders , associated with the disintegration of thought processes and emotional reactions .Schizophrenic disorders generally differ in characteristic fundamental disorders of thinking and perception, as well as inadequate or decreased affect. The most frequent manifestations of the disease are auditory hallucinations, paranoid or fantastic delirium or disorganization of speech and thinking against a background of significant social dysfunction, impaired performance.
A variety of symptoms has generated debate about whether schizophrenia is a single disease or is a diagnosis behind which lies a series of individual syndromes. This ambiguity was reflected in the choice of the name: Bleuler used the plural, calling the disease schizophrenia .
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The etymology of the word, from "cleavage of the mind," causes confusion - in a popular culture the disease is mixed with a "split personality" - an inaccurate name for dissociative personality disorder. The first known erroneous use of the term is noted in the article of the poet TS Eliot, published in 1933 .
The overall risk of the disease, according to research, is 0.4-0.6%( 4-6 cases per 1000 people)  .Men and women fall ill about equally often, but women tend to have a later onset of the disease.
In patients with schizophrenia, comorbid disorders are most likely to be diagnosed, including depression and anxiety disorders ;The risk of alcoholism and drug addiction is about 40%.Frequent social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty and homelessness. An increased risk of suicide and health problems lead to a decrease in life expectancy, which is shorter in patients 10-12 years shorter compared to people who do not suffer from schizophrenia .
Schizophrenia is one of the main causes leading to disability. In a study conducted in 14 countries in 1999, it was shown that the state of active psychosis ranks third in this regard after complete paralysis( quadriplegia) and dementia, surpassing paraplegia and blindness in disabling effects .However, the course of the disease reveals a significant diversity and is in no way connected with the inevitability of chronic development or a progressive increase in the defect. In some cases, the frequency of which varies in different cultures and populations, the recovery may be complete or almost complete.
In severe cases, if the patient poses a risk to themselves and others, involuntary hospitalization may be required, but in Western Europe the frequency and length of stay in the clinic have decreased compared to earlier times .