Thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs: the symptoms, photo, treatment

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Thrombophlebitis - fairly widespread vascular disease, according to the WHO, occurring in 12-15% of the world population. It characterized by inflammatory phenomena of the vein wall to form a thrombus, closing the lumen. It is believed that half of varicose veins complicated by thrombophlebitis.

The disease affects the surface, often varicose changed, and deep veins. The most common pathology develops in the blood vessels of the lower extremities and pelvis. At times there is less thrombophlebitis liver, hollow and portal veins. Condition in which the blood flow is slowed down, the integrity of the vascular wall is disturbed, and blood clotting increases provoke disease.

What it is?

Thrombophlebitis - a vascular abnormality which is characterized by inflammation of the venous wall to form a thrombus, partially and completely blocks a vein. Basically, thrombophlebitis localized in the lower limbs and affects, as a rule, the veins under the skin and deep into the muscle tissue.

The causes of the disease

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The reason for superficial venous thrombophlebitis is damage to the vessel wall. This occurs due to incorrect setting of the catheter or needle for intravenous infusion. Thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities usually develops due Varicose Veins.

Among the factors disease risk include:

  • Obesity;
  • Alcoholism;
  • Injuries of extremities;
  • Oncological diseases, hematological diseases;
  • Pregnancy. Increased uterus can compress the large vein in the pelvis, increasing the risk of thrombosis;
  • Smoking, especially in conjunction with hormone replacement therapy or hormonal birth control pills (the use of a new generation of oral contraceptives reduces the risk thrombus formation);
  • Prolonged forced position of limited limb mobility (prolonged trip, air travel over long distances, constant presence in bed because of illness or after surgery intervention).

Among the causes of deep vein thrombophlebitis release:

  • Congenital or acquired anomalies of the blood coagulation system.
  • Damage due to irritation of the vein wall catheter or needle injury, infection, contact with the vessel lumen irritating chemicals.
  • Inactive lifestyle. With long-term absence of adequate physical activities clot grows to a very large size and cause serious blood circulation in the affected vessel;

According to a 2004 study, women receiving combined hormone therapy (estrogen and progestin) in postmenopausal period have twice the risk of venous thrombosis compared with a control group of women not taking hormonal drugs.


Develop symptoms of thrombophlebitis of superficial veins with pain in the legs, is not very strong. It hurts the skin in the course of the saphenous veins. The skin over the thrombosed veins is red, inflamed, normal skin becomes warmer to the touch.

There is a slight increase in body temperature - up to 37.5 C, at least - up to 38 C. After a while (typically 5-6 days), the temperature returns to normal or is at a small increase. Sometimes, thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities occur without any fever.

Epiphenomenon of thrombophlebitis - a small swelling of the feet, where the clot formed. along the veins inflamed skin stripes. Then begin to appear compacted areas of the skin of various sizes. Their size depends on the diameter of thrombosed veins. These densified areas can be felt well and are in fact blood clots. Walking is accompanied by tenderness.

Thrombophlebitis of deep veins of lower extremities

Inflammation lies under a layer of muscle venous walls with the formation of a blood clot called deep vein thrombophlebitis.

The main features of the disease include:

  • pain;
  • cyanosis of the skin;
  • swelling, heaviness in the limbs;
  • weakness, malaise;
  • elevated temperature to localize problematic veins.

Among the causes of the deep thrombophlebitis are the following:

  • development of inflammatory lesions in the veins (bruise, abscess, furuncleAbscess);
  • impaired venous blood flow due to varicose veins, valvular insufficiency, compression of the veins;
  • increased blood viscosity due to dehydration, thrombocytosis, hormonal disorders;
  • allergic, infectious, mechanical damage to the venous inner shell.

Deep vein thrombophlebitis is often accompanied by the formation of floating thrombus. In its form resembles a thrombus tadpole and can reach a length of 20 cm, and sometimes more. Tail floating thrombus blood flow under the influence performs constant movement and is capable at any moment off, causing the development of pulmonary embolism and almost instant death patient. Therefore, if there is such a thrombus phlebologists insist on surgical treatment. The essence of the operation is to install in the inferior vena cava at the level below the renal veins cava filter (Special filter is a trap for a blood clot, which does not allow him to lead to occlusion of the vessel, t. e. thromboembolism).

What is thrombophlebitis: photo

The photo below shows how the disease manifests itself in humans.


The basis for primary diagnosis thrombophlebitis outpatient clinical picture is typical. If you experience these symptoms need to urgently address to the doctor-surgeon. To verify the location and size of a thrombus, valve status assessment and venous outflow carried duplex scanning affected veins. Less commonly used radiopaque study (phlebography). When laboratory analysis clarifies the state of the blood coagulation system.

Than to treat thrombophlebitis?

Scheme of treatment depends on the severity of venous thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs. Advantageously, treatment is carried out at home, however, the acute form is shown hospitalization.

Treatment of the disease consists of a set of measures:

  • taking medication;
  • invasive therapy;
  • local therapy;
  • physiotherapy - UHF, SMC, possible electrophoresis with anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • fixing lesion elastic bandages.

Methods of medical treatment of thrombophlebitis include:

  1. Of drugs - anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant for plasma thinners, antibiotics and antispasmodics.
  2. Using physiotherapeutic techniques - administering anticoagulants via electrophoresis, to variables hydrotherapy baths, UHF procedure.
  3. Bed rest - depending on the nature and severity of the disease physical activity should be minimized. Leg in a horizontal position on an elevated surface;
  4. Applying compression underwear preventing vascular damage expansion of their walls - Special bandages, pantyhose, stockings to compress the affected venous walls.

When failure of conservative therapy used radical and minimally invasive surgery.

  • Bonding channel affected by sclerotherapy - introduction into a vessel of special composition.
  • Method venous thrombectomy is used for the extraction of thrombotic zgustkov special catheter.
  • Removing thrombus endoscopically. Using the endoscopic instrument introduced into the vessel, a thrombus is removed and set a special filter or trapping vessel is ligation.
  • Method endovasal laser coagulation. As a result, laser processing and thrombotic venous wall occurs clot adhesion vessel, completely removing it from the circulation process, directing the blood of healthy channel.
  • Radical surgical method involves removal of the affected veins, to prevent the further spread of the pathological process. Today is used in exceptional cases, where an extensive process that threatens the life of the patient.

All of these methods are effective. Allow patients to return to normal pain-free life.

What to eat at a thrombophlebitis?

One of the causes of the disease is described obesity. Therefore everyone who is exposed to any disease of the venous system, you need to limit yourself to the use of certain products.

For example, a diet with thrombophlebitis (during treatment) recommends the abolition of fried, spicy, too salty and spicy dishes. It is advisable to refrain from oily fish and meat, include in your diet Diet varieties: chicken breasts, rabbit, turkey. On the table should always be fresh vegetables and fruits, except bananas, peas and beans.

In the winter, take a multivitamin. Make it a rule every day to eat a clove of garlic, be sure to eat onions.

Folk remedies

Treatment of thrombophlebitis of folk remedies can help alleviate the disease, reduce pain and swelling in the legs and relieve other symptoms. This is proven on more than one generation methods.

  1. Most city people are not aware that in the village of many illnesses legs and arms (burns, frostbite), as well as ulcers of different origin and thrombophlebitis, treated with goose fat. It is today considered one of the most effective means, which is used both in pure form and in the preparation of ointments adding various herbs such as Calendula or Hypericum. Full recovery can be achieved using the 30% ointment with addition of a slurry of crushed roots Comfrey (larkspur). To do this, a hundred grams of goose fat 30 g Comfrey root. Heated for 15 minutes, strain. The ointment is ready for use.
  2. Tincture of bee Podmore. Life of Bees - short. And in the spring of old individuals who have worked the summer die. Young bees carry them to take off board. This is called Podmore. They need to gather and pour vodka (a handful Podmore 0.5 liters of vodka). Insist two weeks, strain. To use as a compress, which is applied to the affected area for 1.5-2 hours.
  3. For rubbing tincture helps to leaves of Kalanchoe. To do this, 2 tbsp. l. tablespoons finely chopped leaves pour 1 cup of vodka. Close the lid tightly and infuse it in a dark cool place for 10 days. Rub his feet in places blood clots smooth gentle movements.
  4. One of the most effective tools in this severe disease of veins is apple cider vinegar home cooking. It is used as rubbing, previously diluted with water (tablespoon vinegar glass of water).
  5. The infusion of nettle. He is not only a beneficial effect on the circulatory system, but also heals and strengthens the whole body. It is particularly useful in the spring, when not enough vitamins.
  6. Juice red tomatoes also promotes a speedy recovery. To do this, apply a compress made from pieces or in the form of pulp from the fruit. Applying to the affected area, fixing bandage at night. The bandage should be tight.

All the proposed methods of treatment of folk remedies, before use it is necessary to agree with the doctor. Use them better in combination with drug therapy.

General recommendations

Be sure to change your habitual way of life - how full it can be done, will depend on the final result of the passage of the treatment of thrombosis.

General recommendations of doctors are as follows:

  1. You can not lift weights.
  2. It is necessary to avoid prolonged standing or sitting - such statistical monotonous posture can lead to poor health.
  3. Regular physical exercise - at least morning exercise and walking, as a maximum - training in the gym.
  4. Absolutely not in patients with this disorder go to baths and saunas. However, overheating is also harmful, as well as hypothermia.
  5. During the rest of the night and sleeping feet should be in the raised position - this will ensure the outflow of blood from the lower extremities, will prevent congestion in the lower extremities.

If considered disease is diagnosed at an early stage, the treating efficiency is very high. But even if the experts recommend to carry out surgery, should not refuse - a radical treatment usually results in complete recovery abilities to live fully and keep working activity.

Complications and prognosis

Complications of superficial thrombophlebitis are rare. Dangerous when the clot breaks off and leads to thromboembolism.

However, in contrast to deep vein thrombosis, which is rarely accompanied by inflammation, superficial thrombophlebitis is usually accompanied by an acute inflammatory reaction, resulting in thrombus adheres to the the vessel wall. The probability of separation and getting very little in the bloodstream. Moreover, superficial veins, as opposed to deep, not surrounded by muscle, which contribute to reduce the compression and displacement of the blood clot, which can lead to its tearing. For these reasons, superficial thrombophlebitis rarely complicated by thromboembolism. However, possible complications are superficial thrombophlebitis.

Be sure to tell the doctor that in spite of the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis symptoms do not decrease or increase. Tell also about the appearance of new symptoms, such as fever, chills, pallor and limb edema. Changing of color at sites of thrombosis may be noticeable for a long time after the treatment, this is not a pathological symptom.


If it is important to diagnose the disease early treatment and prevention of disease progression. To do this, you need time to turn to a specialist and undergo treatment.

Also, prevention is:

  • an active lifestyle and sports;
  • timely treatment of varicose veins;
  • rejection of bad habits;
  • balanced meals and limit consumption of fatty foods;
  • identification and elimination of foci of infection in the body.

The favorable outcome of the disease is only possible to see a doctor, and the passage of the corresponding treatment.

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