Pathogen calmonelleza - a large group of Salmonella (family Enterobacteriaceae, genus Salmonella), currently has more than 2,200 serotypes. The sources of infection are mainly domestic animals and birds, but certain important is the person (patient support) as an additional source.
The main route of infection salmonellosis - nutritional due to the ingestion of foods that contain large amounts of salmonella. Typically, this occurs due to improper cooking.
What it is?
Salmonellosis - acute intestinal infection in animals and humans, caused by Salmonella and is characterized, in general, the development of intoxication and defeat of the gastrointestinal tract.
What is Salmonella? This is a special type of bacteria, which if it enters the human body leads to inflammation of some parts of the digestive system and severe intoxication.
They are a mobile Gram-negative rods with flagella. Pathogen salmonella (Salmonella) belongs to the family of intestinal Enterobacteriaceae, which is associated with the ability of this type microorganisms striking intestine, although there are other forms of the disease.
Salmonella have certain characteristics.
- In animal faeces pathogen salmonella live up to four years.
- They are resistant to salting, smoking and freezing.
- On surrounding objects at normal room temperature, viable bacteria may be up to three months.
- They are resistant to the action of many environmental factors are able to survive at a temperature of -82 ºC and long remain on the surface in a dried form.
- To destroy the bacteria in their products have to be subjected to prolonged heat treatment. What temperature kills salmonella? - at least 50 ºC. For example, to kill Salmonella in a small piece of meat weighing approximately 500 mg would have its cooking or stew for 2.5 hours.
- Salmonella live in the meat of domestic and wild animals, poultry, milk, eggs of birds. A feature of these bacteria is the ability to multiply in milk and meat dishes ready for a long time, and they do not change their appearance, that is not visually distinguish between infected products of the net.
- Salmonella can produce or produce exotoxins: enterotoxin and cytotoxin.
- With the destruction of the bacteria into the body of an infected person is released endotoxin, which leads to the development of severe intoxication.
Where else lives salmonella? - in water, in contact there with faeces or through infected objects, they can be up to two months.
The incubation period ranges salmonellosis from 6 hours to 3 days, averaging 12-24 hours.
symptoms of salmonellosis
The disease develops after 6-72 hours after ingestion of Salmonella. Symptoms of salmonellosis may be expressed clearly, or may not appear. In the latter case, the person is a source of infection to others, but he does not suffer (bacteriocarrier).
Several distinct clinical forms of salmonellosis each of which are characterized by their features:
- Gastrointestinal (when it is dominated by disorders of the gastrointestinal tract).
- Typhoid (in patients after some time roseolous rash appears after the onset of illness, fever becomes undulating, increased liver and spleen).
- Cleared (when her symptoms are mild - the clinic may be limited to mild diarrhea within 1-2 days).
- Subclinical and bacteriocarrier (in these forms of the disease no symptoms at all, and the presence of infection in the body can only be confirmed on salmonella analysis).
- Septic (infection spreads throughout the body and causes the formation of purulent foci in many internal organs). Developing this form of the disease mainly in people with immune deficiencies, in which the immune system is unable to locate an infection in the intestine. Sometimes in this course of the disease, there are signs of meningeal syndrome, which is associated with the penetration of infectious agents to the brain membranes. The most characteristic of such a picture for young children, because they have a protective barrier between the brain and the blood has a high permeability.
The most common gastrointestinal form of salmonellosis, therefore, take a closer look, how it develops and manifests itself.
To confirm the diagnosis of salmonellosis are required bacteriological and serological studies. Material for bacteriological tests are blood, feces, urine, vomit, gastric lavage, bile, pus from the foci of inflammation. For detection of antibodies using the indirect hemagglutination reaction. The minimum diagnostic titre - 1: 200.
salmonellosis treatment at home
Together with medication needs bed rest. Below is given the treatment of salmonellosis in adults, in accordance with the national standard, but this is only schematic view, life is conducted individual approach taking into account the age of indicators / degree exsicosis / toxicity and the degree of dehydration.
1) Etotropnaya therapy aimed at the destruction of the pathogen and drugs of choice are: enteriks, hlorhinoldol, ciprofloxacin, salmonelny bacteriophage sangviritin.
2) Pathogenetic therapy:
- Sorbents: Smecta (for removal of waste products of Salmonella).
- Fermentoterapiya: mezim Fort Oraz.
- Antidiarrheal drugs: calcium gluconate, indomethacin.
- Antispasmodics (painkillers): No-Spa, or its analogs.
- Rehydration therapy aims to restore the water-salt metabolism, using rehydron and Trisong.
- Detoxification therapy aimed at eliminating the dehydration and the amount of fluid injected directly depends on the degree of dehydration. When this is used glucose and reopoligljukin.
- Eubiotics and biologics: baktisuptil, Linex, Atsipol, bifidum-laktobakterin.
Outpatient treatment of patients with suspected salmonellosis usually does not spend. Patients are sent to hospital to hospital to provide them with specialized medical care.
Particularly important for the treatment of diet salmonellosis in adults, which makes it easier for her. If the patient is in the clinic, it complies with medical diet №4. At home hospitalization after diagnosis is necessary to observe the rules and precautions to prevent complications:
- add a little lemon in food;
- have shredded fast utilizable food fractional, avoiding overeating;
- useful to eat bananas, apples, carrots, potatoes;
- a day you need to drink three liters of fluid - water, green tea, juice, jelly;
- light soups, chicken soups, semolina, rice, buckwheat;
- porridges cooked on water without butter and salt, mashed potatoes, too, do without milk;
- drink fermented milk drinks, there are blueberries, cranberries;
- lean fish and meats make them better steam cutlets;
- allowed to eat watermelon, white crackers;
- in the early days to drink only water, then boiled or baked included meals.
How to speed healing and restore the intestinal microflora?
Some tips that are easy to observe in the home will help to quickly recover from illness:
- Enzymes (Festal, Mezim Forte) can drink from the first day of the disease up to 2 weeks.
- Sparing diet after suffering salmonellosis must be followed for a month. Excludes spices, smoked, canned, fatty meats and fish, sweets, whole milk, raw vegetables and fruits, mushrooms.
- If persistent vomiting can take Motilium or Reglan, pain in the abdomen - papaverine or No-spa, and flatulence - simethicone (Espumizan, Meteospazmil).
- Treatment is quite possible to add phytotherapy. In the early days preferred astringents - oak bark, pomegranate peel, partitions walnuts, cherry fruit, and then - anti: chamomile, plantain, calendula, strawberries, sage and mint.
- After the cessation of diarrhea can begin taking medications that normalize microflora - Atsipol, bifidobakterin, Linex, Enterol. The course should be quite long - at least 3 weeks.
Complications of salmonellosis are many and varied:
- Vascular collapse with the formation of acute heart failure and renal failure;
- The most dangerous complication for others is a carrier is formed due to incomplete phagocytosis.
- Septic complications with the development purulent lesions in various organs and tissues and the formation as a result of: arthritis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, brain abscesses, spleen, liver and kidneys, meningitis, peritonitis, appendicitis, pneumonia, Urinary tract infection, toxic shock.
There are some rules that are home to many observe any prevention of intestinal infections, including salmonellosis:
- A separate knife for raw meat and fish - this also applies to the cutting board, which together with a knife after use should be thoroughly washed and rinsed with boiling water.
- Wash hands before eating - the most important rule, familiar since childhood, but for the prevention of Salmonella and other enteric infections is most effective.
- Do not eat eggnog - and do not drink raw eggs and cook for 20 minutes, they must, if necessary, the use of raw eggs should wash it thoroughly with soap and water.
- Do not eat poorly-done meat - meat and poultry should be cooked at a minimum of 1 hour.
- Avoid catering in dubious establishments in the summer time.
- Drink only boiled milk - and avoid the use of cheese-like "Adygeya" and cottage cheese in the summer, acquired in dubious outlets.
Salmonellosis - not the disease, which can be treated safely, it belongs to the category of deadly diseases. At the first signs of sickness should immediately consult a doctor for urgent action.