Heart attack - this disorder is myocardial perfusion area, which is accompanied by loss of cardiomyocytes and a violation of the contractile function of the heart. Insufficient blood supply to the myocardium of the patient affects the state of health, other tissue oxygen saturation level and blood pressure (arterial pressure).
Systolic (upper) and diastolic (lower) pressure are important diagnostic infarct indicators that allow you to determine the severity of the patient's condition, the risk of cardiogenic shock and probability repeated attack.
What should be pressure and heart rate of myocardial infarction
Changes in pressure during hypoxia and necrosis of the heart portion depends on the stage of the pathology and size of the affected area. In the first hours after the onset of disorders diagnosed hypertension, which is due to the high activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Most frequently the pressure level is increased slightly - to 160-170 / 100 mm Hg, but performance may reach and higher values (190/105 mm Hg).
After the acute phase of myocardial pressure drops below the age norm. This is due to a violation of the contractile function of the heart, loss of elastic properties and a decrease in coronary artery tone. The decrease in vascular resistance and filling the chambers of the heart has a direct impact on blood pressure parameters.
In patients who suffer from hypertension, it is often a sharp drop in the acute stage pathology systolic blood pressure to normal values (120 mmHg) while maintaining high diastolic pressure. This phenomenon, which is called a "headless hypertension", due to the high peripheral vascular resistance on the background of the deterioration of myocardial function.
In lesions cardiomyocytes heart rate increased to 90 beats. / Min. or more at normal pulse rate 60-80 per minute. Increase in heart rate is compensatory in nature: disruption of the normal ventricular filling and reduced activity of metabolic processes in the tissues provokes an accelerated heartbeat.
Pulse rate after a myocardial infarction is between 60 to 100 beats per minute. Sinus tachycardia is stable character. Sudden bouts of frequent palpitations (140-220 beats) the most frequently observed in atypical (cerebrovascular) during a heart attack.
Repeated exceeds the normal pulse rate of myocardial infarction are often observed and ventricular fibrillation or cardiogenic shock. In this case, not only the heart rate, but also the nature of cardiac activity: voltage and filling strokes is reduced, the pulse becomes weak and thready.
In some patients with myocardial pulse is stored in the normal or even reduced. Transient bradycardia (reduced heart rate condition) quickly replaced tachycardia. Prolonged and steady decrease in pulse rate indicates the development of 2-3 degree atrioventricular block. Accompanied by severe bradycardia arrhythmias and atrial and ventricular dissociation rate.
Low palpable thready pulse and a sharp drop in blood pressure in myocardial infarction are hallmarks cardiogenic shock - severe complications is accompanied by tissue hypoxia and 90% of a lethal outcome.
Why, after a heart attack low blood pressure
The occurrence of heart attacks at low pressure (hypotension) may be due to the following factors:
- relapse of cardiac function (e.g., if hypotension provoked myocardial necrosis zones in the history);
- sharp increase in blood pressure;
- vascular pathologies, and others.
However, even at normal or low blood pressure after its level decreases infarct. The lower limit of systolic pressure is fixed 24-72 hours after the onset of pathology.
The reduced pressure after myocardial stored in acute, subacute and scar stage. The cause of hypotension is to reduce the resistance of the entire vascular system and contractile ability of the heart due to the formation of first areas of necrosis and then the scar on the spot functional tissue.
In lesions large volume heart muscle develops cardiogenic shock: upper pressure reaches values below 80 mm Hg, patients have weakness, dizziness, fainting, rapid cooling of course, often a weak heartbeat.
Blood pressure changes are indicative of the risk of re-circulatory disorders. For patients after myocardial pressure stabilizes within a few days and maintained within normal or elevated values, positive treatment prognosis.
Especially in males and females
The clinical picture of disease differs between patients of different sexes:
- The men in the acute stage of fixed hypertension and tachycardia, depends on the nature of the disease. Hypotension observed on the following day after the cessation of blood supply to the heart area.
- Upper pressure infarction in women can be reduced or conform to the norm. Pulse often changes slightly. Hypertension in the acute stage of defeat is not an exceptional or rare, however, the absence of severe pain and sudden changes in blood pressure and heart rate are observed more frequently in women than in patients male.
Typical chest pain, increased pulse rate and pressure of myocardial infarction in men allows you to diagnose pathology and recourse to effective methods of first aid. Erased clinic and no significant changes in heart rate and blood pressure levels prevent the diagnosis correctly without additional laboratory and research hardware, so women myocardial necrosis often complicated by severe impairment of cardiac function and death.
In addition to the different manifestations and risks of diseases: myocardial infarction in women younger than 65 years old there is 2.5-3 times less likely than men in the same age group. This is due to lifestyle (stress, nutrition and early treatment), and hormonal factors. In patients older than 65 years of gender difference in the risk of occurrence of heart disorders is reduced.
What to do for the normalization of the
Regardless of the value of pressure reduction and heart rate risk repeat violation persists for 1-2 weeks. Monitor the pressure, shock filling of the heart chambers and heart rate in myocardial should be not only in the acute and the acute phase, but also during the entire period of rehabilitation and maintenance therapy.
The first aid techniques with a sudden change of pressure and the risk of a heart attack include:
- ensuring easy (lying) position of the patient and the free access of oxygen to the patient's airway;
- nitroglycerin and Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid preparations);
- chest compressions, the call "ambulance" brigade.
Normalize heart rate and pressure after a heart attack on the background of the acute stage of infringement is only possible in a health institution.
The rehabilitation plan is developed in accordance with the severity of the attack and the patient's condition:
- Within 10-14 days the patient is in the intensive care unit or intensive care unit and received thrombolytics, alpha-adrenergic agonists, drugs to stimulate the central nervous system, and other drugs that interfere with development disorders in other organs and systems. Mandatory control the oxygen content of blood, heart rate, systolic and diastolic pressure.
- In the absence of adverse changes in pressure after normalization is recommended in general ward translation start and regenerative therapy.
- During rehabilitation is shown receiving individually tailored drug complex (beta-blockers, adaptogens, vitamin complexes, and other anticoagulants.), blood pressure maintenance at the level of 120-150 mmHg / 80-100 mm Hg and diet with a minimum of salt and fat of animal origin. Patients with postinfarction hypotension appointed blood oxygenation procedures (ozone therapy, hyperbaric treatment et al.).
- After the end of therapy recommended continued dietetics, spa treatment and locomotor activity (physical therapy, walking and other moderate load). Mandatory self-monitoring of blood pressure and pulse rate.
What are some methods to deal with low pressure after a heart attack (what to do in case of symptoms of hypotension)
- take a tincture of Eleutherococcus (20-40 drops) or ginseng extract (15-25 drops) for 30 minutes before meals;
- drink a cup of sweet caffeinated drink (strong tea or coffee);
- take a pill caffeine Kordiamin drops or another antihypertensive agent;
- lie in a comfortable position and to ensure the flow of oxygen.
Receiving plant adaptogens and Drug Administration should be agreed with your doctor. With frequent attacks of hypotension should be diagnosed cardiac function, as this may indicate an increased risk of re-circulatory disorders.